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Pre-history & Early Man [PDF]

Pre-history & Early Man

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Pre-history & Early Man [PDF]

  1. 1. The History of Early Man
  2. 2. Theories for Early Human Migration “Out of Africa Theory” All hominids emerged in Africa and migrated outward and modern humans may have co-existed with earlier hominids. “Multiregional Thesis” Proposes that modern humans descending from earlier hominid groups that had already left Africa, emerged simultaneously throughout the world (held by few scholars).
  3. 3. Human Origins in Africa Scientists Search for Human Origins Fossil evidence shows that the earliest humans originated in Africa and spread across the globe. Early Footprints Found in the 1970s – Louis & Mary Leakey (1903-1972) – Kenyan archaeologists who began looking for early human remains in East Africa where they found many tools, bones & other artifacts. Experts believe the first people were only about four and a half feet (1.4 meters) tall. They had large jaws to help grind food. They were covered with more hair than people now have, probably to keep warm.
  4. 4. Discovery of “Lucy” While Mary Leakey was working in East Africa, U.S. anthropologist Donald Johanson and his team was also searching for fossils. They were exploring sites in Ethiopia, about 1,000 miles to the north. In 1974, Johanson’s team made a remarkable find, an unusually complete skeleton of an adult female hominid. They nicknamed her “Lucy” after the song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds.” She had lived around 3.5 million years ago, the oldest hominid found to that date. Anthropologist Donald Johanson discovered Lucy in 1974.
  5. 5. Australopithecus "Southern Ape" Anthropologists believe the australopithecines (aw stray loh PITH uh seens) were the first hominids which first appeared in Africa about four million years ago. Scientists base their findings on the age and location of australopithecine fossils. Standards for Being Human: 1. 90cc skull size 2. Upright vertebrate 3. Thumb for tool making
  6. 6. Comparative Hand Structure Between Man and Primates Man is not the only animal to possess opposable thumbs, most primates [apes] do. What makes man unique is how we can bring our opposable thumbs all the way across the hand. This gives man a powerful grip and exceptional dexterity to hold and manipulate tools. • Human fingers are straight; chimps and other apes are curved. • Man has a much longer thumb than do apes. • Man is more capable of gripping items more precisely than apes can which allow man to make and use tools. Note the Following: Power Grip: Fingers and thumbs wrap around the object. Precision grip: Forefingers and thumb hold the object. Importance: Man can do finer work compared to non-human primates.
  7. 7. Extended Activity #1- All Thumbs Extended Activity: In order to understand the differences between human beings and other animals, try not to use your thumbs for a short time while performing your everyday activities. What did you discover? How do those two small digits separate humankind from the rest of the animal kingdom?
  8. 8. Homo Habilis "Handy Man" • About 2 million BCE • Scientists named the first humans Homo habilis (HO mo huh BIL us), meaning "man with ability." Food is necessary for people to survive. The source of food was very important to the people of the Paleolithic Age. Most likely, people were nomadic and grouped themselves into small bands that followed the animals they could catch and eat. They did not have permanent homes.
  9. 9. Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Age The first humans lived in what is called the Paleolithic (pay le oh LITH ik) Age, or Old Stone Age, which began over two million years ago and ended about 15,000 years ago. Historians categorize the Paleolithic Era as prehistory because there was no written language to record events, names, dates or places. • The people of the Paleolithic Age shaped stone by chipping it. • Hunting & gathering societies [25-40 individuals] • Nomads- People who travel from place to place in constant search of food and water • Use of clothes & fire • Cave paintings found of animals • Animism- Religion which involves worshipping spirits in nature • Simple tools/weapons made of stone, bone & wood These early human beings probably used hand axes for many tasks, such as shaping wood or bone and cutting up meat.
  10. 10. Homo Erectus "Upright Man" 1.75 million years ago to 400,000 years ago. As man began to stand and walk, scientists called humans Homo erectus, which means "man who walks upright.” Homo Erectus Brain
  11. 11. Nomads Although caves were too cold and damp to live in, early people did build campsites in front of them or in close proximity to them, for the caves did offer some protection. Experts believe these people made campsites and stayed in one place only until their supply of food was exhausted. Then they moved to a new site to search for more food.
  12. 12. Paleolithic Artists Paleolithic artists used three basic colors: black, red, and yellow. They obtained these pigments from natural sources including charcoal, clay, and such minerals as iron. The artists often painted animals on a part of the cave wall where there was a natural swelling, which created a three-dimensional effect.
  13. 13. Fire Another improvement in lifestyle resulted when humans in the Paleolithic Age learned to make fire. The earliest use of fire by people was to keep warm. They had seen fires started by lightning. However, when they learned they could rub sticks or stones together to start a fire, they had more control over their lives. People could now keep warm and have light during darkness. They used burning sticks to frighten animals away. When they discovered tools that had fallen into fire were harder and lasted longer, they learned to make better weapons that would kill larger animals. People found that food tasted better when it was heated or cooked. It was also easier to digest. People ate more, and the size of humans steadily increased.
  14. 14. How to Start a Fire
  15. 15. Language Even though scientists believe spoken language was developed very early in human civilization, humans have not always talked. In the beginning, the language of the earliest people may have consisted of simple sounds, grunts, or words. As they began to develop better tools and hunt in larger areas, humans developed language so they could communicate better.
  16. 16. Extended Activity #2- Understanding Language Extended Activity: In order to understand the importance of language in our lives, try communicating for a short while without using language. Dividing into small groups, have each member of the group try to tell a story or convey a message without using any form of speech.
  17. 17. Ice Age [2.6 million years ago] Early history had long, cold periods of time during which huge sheets of ice covered most of the earth. These great sheets of ice moved very slowly across the earth, carving rivers and valleys and giving shape to many landforms. Experts believe that there may have been as many as four ice ages, covering millions of years. During this time, people began to live together in small groups.
  18. 18. Ice Age Glaciers
  19. 19. Glaciers At one time, glaciers covered nearly one fourth of the earth and alternately advanced and retreated as many as 18 times. Glaciers moved as far south as Kentucky in the United States. Because of this, it is possible that land bridges allowed people to follow herds of animals from one continent to another. Ötzi, the Iceman, was discovered in September 1991, frozen in the Alps and is the oldest human body ever found preserved by freezing. His possessions and clothing have given scientists a better look at what life was like during the Neolithic Age in Europe.
  20. 20. Land Bridge Many people from Asia crossed the land bridge at the Bering Strait. These people eventually spread throughout North America. Eventually, these prehistoric people migrated into Central and South America. Later, many glaciers melted and the level of the oceans rose. Many landforms that were once exposed are today covered with water and the land bridges disappeared. People had no way of crossing the water.
  21. 21. Use of Tools Humans soon discovered they could kill more animals and cut more food to be eaten if they had tools. At first they used only what was available, usually sticks or stones they could throw. However, when they discovered they could shape the tools to help them, they had more food to eat. They could also scrape animal skins and wear them for warmth. They could also cut down trees and chop up plants. Other than stone, what kind of materials do you imagine were available to work with during the Old Stone Age? Most likely, tools were made from bones or other parts of animals, or from plants. Stones were beaten and shaped into tools or weapons.
  22. 22. New Stone Age or Neolithic Age Neolithic Period, also called New Stone Age, was the closing s phase of cultural evolution among prehistoric humans. It was characterized by stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding, dependence on domesticated plants and animals, settlement in permanent villages, and the appearance of such crafts as pottery and weaving.
  23. 23. Homo Sapiens "Wise Man" The humans of about 400,000 to 300,000 years ago came to be called Homo sapiens, or "man who thinks.” Hominids evolved and developed for millions of years prior to the arrival of Homo sapiens on the Earth. This evolution was slow. The development of a new skill or Tool often took thousands of years. With the arrival of Homo sapiens, this all changed. The speed of advancements increased dramatically. Instead of thousands of years, great progress was made in hundreds or even dozens of years. Because humans could think and use knowledge to make food better to eat, their diets improved, and the size of people gradually increased. Each improvement in the lifestyle of humans has gradually caused the body to adapt to changes. People today would be considered giants in comparison to humans in the Neolithic Age.
  24. 24. Domestication of Animals Wild animals were also domesticated. Goats were utilized for their meat and milk, cattle, pigs and chickens provided a steady source of food for the support of a group of humans.
  25. 25. Neanderthals [500,000 B.C.] The first Homo sapiens are believed to have been the Neanderthals who first appeared on the Earth around 200,000 years ago in Africa. They migrated from Africa to the rest of the world around 100,000 years ago. The word Neanderthal comes from the Neander Valley near Dusseldorf, Germany where the first fossils identified as Neanderthal were found there in 1856. Neanderthals were around five to six feet in height. Had thick sturdy bones, muscular shoulders and necks, slightly curved limbs, big brow ridges, and powerful teeth. Neanderthals also had large brains. In fact, their brains were slightly larger than those of modern humans. Neanderthals relied more on their physical strength than on the skillful use of their hands or the inventive use of tools. Big brow ridges (forehead)
  26. 26. Neanderthals and Tool Making Like earlier hominids, Neanderthals made and used tools. However, the tools produced by the Neanderthals were much more advanced than those used by their predecessors. Neanderthals learned to create specialized cutting and scraping tools by chipping away at the edge of a rock. They learned to combine different types of stone into a single tool, and they discovered how to use a wide variety of soft and hard stones for specialized tasks. By sharpening stones or bones, people created crude needles to punch holes in hides. They laced strips of hide together to make clothing fit better. Better clothing meant people were able to withstand colder weather. They could move into cooler, wetter areas.
  27. 27. Neanderthal Shelters The Neanderthal lived throughout a widely divergent climate and habitat. These peoples adapted quickly to new environments as they migrated. Some lived in caves, while others built shelters out of branches and animal skins. Still others dug pits and covered them with branches, animal skins and leaves.
  28. 28. Neanderthal Culture There is strong evidence that the Neanderthal had a belief in the afterlife. Burial plots have been found where the dead were covered with flowers and buried with food along with the tools they would need in the next life. There is also evidence that Neanderthal cared for their sick and injured. Fossil remains show serious injuries, such as broken legs, which had healed completely. It is even possible that Neanderthal used medicines.
  29. 29. Homo Sapiens Sapiens It is believed that modern humans like you and I first originated on the Earth around 50,000 years ago in Africa. These modern humans are referred to by historians as Homo sapiens sapiens. Within just a few thousand years these modern humans had spread to every continent across the entire planet, and onto many islands. As Homo sapiens sapiens migrated outward from Africa, it is believed that they wiped out Neanderthals, either by absorbing them through intermarriage, or by destroying them through war and competition.
  30. 30. Cro-Magnons [25,000 BC - 10,000 BC] The earliest Homo sapiens sapiens were the Cro-Magnons. These early modern humans are named after the location of their discovery in France in the 1860s, but remains have been found in North America, as well Africa and Asia. Cro-Magnons were taller than the Neanderthal, but they were not as muscular. A very important advantage is that they had much improved technologies, languages and cultures over those of the Neanderthals. Cro-Magnons were good toolmakers and was one of the major accomplishments of the Cro-Magnons.
  31. 31. Cro-Magnon Social Life At first, Cro-Magnon life was not all that different from the lives of earlier hominids. They lived in caves or temporary structures, and spent their lives hunting and gathering in small groups. As food sources increased, humans settlements became more permanent. Many groups began building homes out of logs or stone. Smaller groups joined together forming larger groups. As these groups developed, so did the need for order. In order to allow individuals to interact with one another, it was necessary that these groups developed rules, or laws. To help enforce these laws, there had to be leaders appointed. Each group or tribe had their own methods for appointing leaders. Sometimes leaders were selected through fighting. In other cases they were appointed according to religious beliefs or through inheritance.
  32. 32. The Agricultural Revolution For hundreds of thousands of years hominids depended on nature for their survival. Food came from wild plants and animals. A natural disaster could reduce the amount of food in the environment which might have a devastating effect on the peoples in nearby regions. Around 8,000 years ago a new way of providing food emerged. This revolutionary advancement was that of farming. Instead of hunting and gathering food from the environments where they lived, humans learned to simply grow their own food. Grains such as wheat, barley, rice and corn were grown in different parts of the world.
  33. 33. Villages Develop With the advent of farming and domesticated animals to feed a society, life became much easier for early humans. As a result, many more humans survived the difficulties of life. The population quickly rose from around 2 million humans on the Earth to more than 90 million. Farming allowed people to build villages along rivers, or wherever the ground was fertile enough for crops to grow. Archeologists have found some villages that are believed to have been built more than 8,000 years ago. Some of these ancient villages, such as Jericho, still survive to this day.
  34. 34. Precious Metals The Neolithic ended when people stopped using stone tools and started to use tools made out of metal. No one really knows how or why people started to use metal tools rather than stone; the inventors of metal tools didn’t write anything down. Scientists think people started using copper and gold for ornaments and jewelry before they started using metal for tools.
  35. 35. Man Learned to Put Down Thoughts in Writing
  36. 36. Man Learned to Put Down Thoughts in Writing (Diagram)
  37. 37. Terms to Know: Australopithecus "Southern Ape" Lucy Homo Habilis "Handy Man" Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Age Homo Erectus "Upright Man" Ice Age Glaciers Land Bridge New Stone Age or Neolithic Age Homo Sapiens "Wise Man" Domestication of Animals Neanderthals Homo Sapiens Sapiens Cro-Magnons Agricultural Revolution
  38. 38. Concepts to Know: What are the two “Theories for Early Human Migration?” •“Multiregional Thesis” •“Out of Africa Theory” Compare the hand structure between man and primates Describe what life was like during the “Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Age” with reference to: •Shelter •Paleolithic art •Fire •Language •Use of Tools Describe the “Ice Age” and the migration of man using the “Land Bridge” Describe what life was like during the “New Stone Age or Neolithic Age” with reference to: •Domestication of animals •Tool Making •Shelters •Burials Describe the Agricultural Revolution?