Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Bhopal gas tragedy

  • Login to see the comments

Bhopal gas tragedy

  1. 1. Bhopal Gas Tragedy
  2. 2. Preview Amongst the worst Industrial Disasters of its time. Occurrence: 3rd December 1984. Place of occurrence: Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Company: Union Carbide Corporation. Chemical: Methyl Isocyanate (27 tons)
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  The union carbide corporation(UCC) was established in 1969 in Bhopal.  Union Carbide India Ltd. was the Indian subsidiary of Union Carbide Corporation (UCC)  Warren Anderson was the UCC CEO at the time of the disaster.  It was occurred at the night of 2nd Dec 1984.  The Bhopal disaster also refers to as the Bhopal gas tragedy was a gas leak incident in India.  It is the world largest industrial disaster.  It occurs on the night of 2nd Dec 1984.
  4. 4. Continue…  Over 5 lakh people were exposed to METHYLE ISOCYNATE GAS and other chemicals.  The official immediate death toll was 2,259.  The government of Madhya Pradesh confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release.  100,000 persons or more have got permanent injuries.
  5. 5. Effects of Methyle Isocynate Gas on Human Health  Respiratory Disorders – Irritation to the lungs, causing coughing and shortness of breathing. Higher exposure caused build up of fluids (pulmonary edema). Caused Asthma.  Cancer Hazard – Caused mutation (genetic changes). It caused cancer.  Reproductive Hazard – Association between exposure to Methyl Isocyanate and miscarriages. It may damage the growing fetus. May also affect fertility in men and women.
  6. 6. Effects of Methyle Isocynate Gas on environment  Due to the Toxic gas after the disaster within a few days tree in the vicinity became barren and 2000 bloated animal carcasses had to be disposed off.  The water air and food become polluted in that area.
  7. 7. Major problem of the Case  Who is responsible for the disaster & why ?  Government of India.  UCC  Management team of UCIL.
  8. 8. Continue…  Government of India.  GoI seems irresponsible when it granted a license to setup manufacturing and storing unit of deadly poisonous chemical in residential area Bhopal where nearly 120,000 people resided.  In December, 1982 Labor minister, T.S. Viyogi said “there is no danger to Bhopal, nor will there ever be” even though UCC officials warned about the upcoming disaster after a field investigation.  GoI was protecting the company neglecting all the complaints and warnings saying a sum of Rs. 250 million had been invested in that unit, which being a large one can’t be shifted elsewhere.
  9. 9. Continue…  Union Carbide Corporation.  UCIL was UCC’s subsidiary company but it pulled out its interest after a huge loss.  It didn’t strongly enforce the rules and policies so that UCIL management team showed poor management and regulation of the company.  Although standards were set for security and maintenance, it didn’t impose on UCIL.  It did not have any kind of emergency plans in place for unseen disaster at UCIL contrary to what was said in UCC’s document so the hospital staff had no idea of what had happened or what to do with MIC related disorders.
  10. 10. Continue…  Management Team of UCIL.  Managing director Jagannath Mukund only focused on cost cutting, cutting off the jobs of more than 200 skilled and experienced workers. By 1983 two third of skilled engineer working from the beginning had already left the company.  Shut down of principal safety systems shows the unethical and irresponsible behavior of M.D. Mukund. o MIC in the tank was filled to 87% of its capacity while maximum permissible limit was 50% . o Refrigeration and cooling systems were shut down but prescribed storage temperature was 00C . o Vital gauges and indicators were defective in MIC tanks. o Flare tower meant to burn off MIC emissions and scrubber cylinder meant to decontaminate leaks were deactivated. o Factory officials reveal about the disaster only after an hour of the leakage although they knew it one hour before
  11. 11. Data related disaster  The disaster was already happening before 1984.  In 1981 a worker was splashed with Phosgene in a panic he removed his mask inhaling a large amount of Phosgene gas which resulted in his death within 72 hrs.  In jan1982 a Phosgene leak exposed 24 workers all of whom were admitted to hospital.  After one month a MIC leak effected 18 workers.  Storing MIC in large tank and filling beyond recommended level.  Tank 610 contain 42 ton of MIC which was much more than what safety rule allowed.
  12. 12. Reason for Citation  Poor maintenance and inadequate emergency.  Use of more dangerous pesticides manufacturing methods.  Plant location closed to densely populated area.  Lack of experienced operator.  Communication problem(worker were forced to use English manual even though only a few had a grasp of the language).  70% of the plants employee was fined before the disaster for refusing to deviate from their proper safety regulations under pressure from the management.  The MIC tank alarm had not been working for 4 yrs and their was only 1 manual backup.  The reduced energy cost the refrigeration system was idle, the MIC was kept at 20 degree Celsius not the 4.5 degree advised by the manual. Source:-"Bhopal trial: Eight convicted over India gas disaster".BBC News
  13. 13. Compensation and Legal Aspects  Compensation of $470 million ($500 per dead).  Twenty years of passiveness.  Case was reviewed and put up in American Court.  DOW Refused Union Carbide’s Liabilities in Bhopal, India.
  14. 14. Economic Effect………  As a result of the gas leak, seventy-five percent of Bhopal citizens are unable to work for more than a few hours at a time.  Only 6.8% of the population can work for any longer than that.  Unemployment and its effect on Bhopal's economy  "supply vs. demand" the demand is very low, driving the suppliers out of business, therefore lowering the supply too.  Many people have become money lenders in the city, and some charge up to 20% interest.  about 5% of the population has gained employment by the government's efforts. Source:http://library.thinkquest.org/01473/Economic%20Effects.htm
  15. 15. Suggested Strategies  Government of India  GoI should not have permitted to build company at Bhopal. Instead they should have suggested any other non-residential area.  It should have enforced strong policies regarding company operations and its security system.  GoI should have used the power to shut down the company after security issues were raised because safety of its people comes first.
  16. 16. Continue…  Union Carbide Corporation  It should have regulated UCIL’s operation even cost cutting strategy was encouraged.  It should have enforced UCIL management to maintain standard of securities.  It shouldn’t have neglected UCIL.
  17. 17. Continue…  Management team of UCIL  It shouldn’t have cut off the jobs of skilled and experienced engineers and other workers.  It should have maintained strong security system.  It should have revealed preventive measures and reactant methodologies for MIC poisoning.  If officials should have warned others right after they foresaw the disaster, the death toll would have decreased.
  18. 18. Lesson Learnt.  Local governments clearly cannot allow industrial facilities to be situated within urban areas, regardless of the evolution of land use over time.  Industry and government need to bring proper financial support to local communities so they can provide medical and other necessary services to reduce morbidity, mortality and material loss in the case of industrial accidents.  Existing public health infrastructure needs to be taken into account when hazardous industries choose sites for manufacturing plants.  Legislation and regulation needs to evolve in active consultation with all stakeholders laying emphasis on emerging requirements, and increasing standards with appropriate emphasis on actual functioning of safety mechanisms and inculcation of an active safety culture.  Multinationals, by virtue of their global purpose, organization, and resources, should be treated as single, monolithic agents, rather than as a network of discrete, non- interdependent units.
  19. 19. Accident after Bhopal Location Year Origin of incident Chemical involved Number of Deaths Injured Evacuated Cochin 1985 Release Hexacyclo-pentadiene - 200 - New Delhi 1985 Release Sulphuric acid 1 340 >10 Bombay 1988 Fire in refinery Oil 35 16 - Bhatinda 1989 Leakage Ammonia - 500 - Nagothane 1990 Leakage Ethane and propane 32 22 - Calcutta 1991 Leakage from a pipeline Chlorine - 200 - Vishakhaptnam 1997 Refinery fire LPG 60 31 150000 Vellore 2003 Explosion Explosives 25 3 Mohali 2003 Fire Not known 4 25 - Cochin 2004 Fire Toluene - Not known - Source: Research work of B.Karthikeyan “Process Safety Management of India” (iitk.ac.in)
  20. 20. References..  Research work of B.Karthikeyan “Process Safety Management of India” (iitk.ac.in)  Research work of Vijita.S.Agarwal (Associate prof. USMS IP UNIV.)  Wikipedia.  http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/new/Ndtv-Show- Special.aspx?ID=553  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/Bhopal-gas-tragedy
  21. 21. Thank You

×