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Learning Enrichment Session
David Newbury
Software & Data Architect
J. Paul Getty Trust
February 20th, 2018
Learning Enric...
My job is to bring together:
• an Archive
• a Library
• a Conservation science lab
• a Publishing house
• a Museum
• a Fou...
Background:
— Software Developer
— Filmmaker
— Advertiser
— Robot-builder
— Underwear modeler
— Provenance data specialist...
Two parts to my job:
Data
Software
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 4
What is data?
Data is information,
structured in a way
that enables use.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@wor...
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 6
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 7
Imagine a city.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 8
Museums are
interested in
the buildings.
(but only the important buildings.)
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (...
Librarians are
interested in
the addresses.
(how do you access the buildings?)
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury...
Archivists are
interested in
the zoning.
(How is the city organized?)
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@worker...
Scholars are
interested in
lived experience.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 12
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 13
On Modeling & Mapping the Real
When we create data,
we're creating an
abstraction of reality.
Learning Enrichment Session ...
"When you design and build a
computer system, you first
formulate a model of the problem
you want it to solve, and then
co...
On October 5, 1960, the
American Ballistic Missile Early-
Warning System indicated Soviet
missiles headed towards the
Unit...
Whose fault was it?
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 17
"...every act of conceptualization,
analysis, categorization, does a
certain amount of violence to its
subject matter, in ...
On Exactitude in Science
A 1:1 scale map
is not a useful
abstraction.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@worker...
There will never be
a correct data model.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 20
There will only be
useful data models.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 21
What is a useful Data Model?
As memory institutions,
we structure and record
information about objects.
We do this because...
Seven ways to look at objects.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 23
Objects are Things.
Objects exist in space and time.
They have weight, and size, and are made of materials.
They are conse...
Objects exist in Context.
Objects are grouped, ordered, described, & summarized.
These intellectual structures provide con...
Objects can be Reproductions.
Objects have shared heritage with other objects.
The physical or intellectual connections be...
Objects have Proxies.
Objects are represented as structured data.
This includes data and digitized representations of an
o...
Objects are Managed.
Policies and rules govern interaction with objects.
These codify how an object should be stored and w...
Objects can contain or embody Representations.
Objects often depict or describe referents. These may be
real times, places...
Objects are Intellectual Works.
Objects interpret of the world around them.
They are made with intent, within intellectual...
It's a little overwhelming,
isn't it?
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 31
If you wish to make an apple pie
from scratch, you must first
invent the universe.
— Carl Sagan
Learning Enrichment Sessio...
When eating an elephant take
one bite at a time.
— Creighton Williams Abrams Jr.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbu...
Lessons Learned: Art Tracks
How do you design a data model
that represents the history of an object,
and how do you expres...
Art TracksFunded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services.
ca. 2013-2015
National Endowment for the Humanities,
Kre...
Traditional Provenance
Durand-Ruel, Paris, August 23, 1872 [1];
Catholina Lambert, New Jersey;
Lambert sale, American Art ...
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 37
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 38
Why do we
need Linked Data?
(When modeling our objects)
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 39
Linked Open Data.
I'm not going to
talk about if we
should share our data.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@w...
Why do
memory institutions
create and share data?
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 41
Are we
Publishers?
Yes.
But we do more than publish
information—we generate our own.
Learning Enrichment Session — David N...
Are we
Researchers?
Yes.
But we don't generate random
information, we research specific
objects.
Learning Enrichment Sessi...
We are
Collections.
We don't just collect.
We research, collect, and preserve
information about our objects, as
well as th...
The Promise of Linked Data:
[The] creation of a common framework that allows data
to be shared and reused across applicati...
Linked Data:
Where is this
magical future?
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 46
What doesn't Linked Data do?
Enable
Web Scale AI
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 47
What doesn't Linked Data do?
Create Easy
Interoperability
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 48
What doesn't Linked Data do?
Automate
Reconciliation
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 49
What doesn't Linked Data do?
Reduce
our Workload
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 50
An awkward
moment goes here.
(This could be a very short talk.)
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome)...
Linked Data is
not a magic bullet.
It's one of a many possible abstract
data models, each of which have
tradeoffs.
Learnin...
Art Tracks, Phase II
Funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities.
ca. 2016-2017
How to express provenance informat...
Content Mgmt. Systems
What we have.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 54
Scholarship, Shared Online
What we want.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 55
Linked Open Data
What we're talking about.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 56
Documents & Graphs
Two different shapes for the same content.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 57
Documents, JSON & Graphs
Three different shapes for the same content.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@worker...
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 59
Mary Cassatt, Young Women Picking Fruit.
Carnegie Museum of Art.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome...
Mary Cassatt, Young Women Picking Fruit.
Carnegie Museum of Art, 1894.
Mary Cassatt [1844-1926], France; Galeries Durand-R...
The Document
The Timeline
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 62
Mary Cassatt, Young Women Picking Fruit.
Carnegie Museum of Art, 1894.
Mary Cassatt [1844-1926], France; Galeries Durand-R...
Reason #1:
Linking to Other
Authorities
and the Local Heroes Problem
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workerg...
Authority,
Identity, & Trust.
We're making authoritative
assertions about identity.
We want to be the "source of truth"
fo...
Authority isn't free.
Maintaining authority takes
enormous time and resources.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury...
The world is vast.
To fully describe everything that
connects to our collection, we
must describe the universe.
Learning E...
Budgets are...less vast.
How can we be authoritative
without being encyclopedic?
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbu...
Asserted Authority.
When you want to be
the authority of record
for something or someone.
Learning Enrichment Session — Da...
NYPL Digital
Collections
Collection Records
A canonical authority provided
by an holding institution.
Learning Enrichment ...
Delegated Authority.
When you want to point to
someone who you trust to be
the authority of record.
Learning Enrichment Se...
Getty Vocabularies
Shared Authority files
One source of authority maintained
by an trusted institution.
Learning Enrichmen...
Reluctant Authority.
When you cannot find
an authority you trust.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnom...
MicroAuthority
A minimalist
CSV-based authority file
Enables small institutions
to connect to their local heroes
Learning ...
Mary Cassatt, Young Women Picking Fruit.
Carnegie Museum of Art, 1894.
Mary Cassatt [1844-1926], France;
Galeries Durand-R...
Reason #2:
Shared Semantics
How do we know we're talking about the same thing?
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury...
JSON Data
Structure
This is understandable,
If you're me.
But you're not me.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (...
Linked Data as
Documentation
When I say "Transfer of Custody",
I mean...
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@wor...
JSON-LD &
CIDOC-CRM
This is more complex,
but that complexity
is documented.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (...
What about
the gaps?
Nothing is comprehensive.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 80
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 81
museumprovenance.org/reference/acquisition_methods
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 82
Galeries Durand-Ruel, Paris, France, by August 1892 [1];
Notes:
[1]. Recorded in stock book in August 1892.
Authorities:
D...
Reason #3:
Minimum Viable
Collaboration
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 84
Getty Provenance Index
Remodel Project
Similar project, different goals.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@wor...
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 86
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 87
Four levels
of provenance?
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 88
Reason #4:
The unattainability
of complete knowledge.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 89
Internal Transaction Events
(Level Four)*
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 90
To Recap:
1. Shared Authority
2. Shared Understanding
3. Easy Collaboration
4. Planning for the Future
Learning Enrichment...
Two parts to my job:
Data
Software
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 92
What is Software?
Software automates practice,
allowing us to be more efficient.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbu...
Digital data and
software are
utterly
intertwined.
We digitize data so that software
can interact with it.
Learning Enrich...
LOUD:
Linked, Open, Useful Data.
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 95
Which of these is truer?
— Probably born 1950.
— Likely born 1950.
Humans don't think about "Truer" that way...
but comput...
Leaky abstractions.
Recording something with the
wrong abstraction can lose
information.
Learning Enrichment Session — Dav...
American Art
Collaborative
Modeling the collections of
14 institutions so that software can
interact with them.
Learning E...
Linked Art:
A standardized data model using
CIDOC-CRM that describes the
objectness of objects, designed
to enable softwar...
Thank you for listening!
Questions?
Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 100
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NDSR Learning Enrichment: Data Models and Linked Data

Webinar, Feb. 20, 2018. David Newbury discusses how data is modeled and presented in memory institutions. He talks about his experiences with Art Tracks, Linked Art, the American Art collaboration, and other projects, discussing how those experiences helped him better understand data modeling and how we can represent objects.

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NDSR Learning Enrichment: Data Models and Linked Data

  1. 1. Learning Enrichment Session David Newbury Software & Data Architect J. Paul Getty Trust February 20th, 2018 Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 1
  2. 2. My job is to bring together: • an Archive • a Library • a Conservation science lab • a Publishing house • a Museum • a Foundation ...through software and data. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 2
  3. 3. Background: — Software Developer — Filmmaker — Advertiser — Robot-builder — Underwear modeler — Provenance data specialist Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 3
  4. 4. Two parts to my job: Data Software Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 4
  5. 5. What is data? Data is information, structured in a way that enables use. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 5
  6. 6. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 6
  7. 7. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 7
  8. 8. Imagine a city. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 8
  9. 9. Museums are interested in the buildings. (but only the important buildings.) Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 9
  10. 10. Librarians are interested in the addresses. (how do you access the buildings?) Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 10
  11. 11. Archivists are interested in the zoning. (How is the city organized?) Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 11
  12. 12. Scholars are interested in lived experience. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 12
  13. 13. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 13
  14. 14. On Modeling & Mapping the Real When we create data, we're creating an abstraction of reality. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 14
  15. 15. "When you design and build a computer system, you first formulate a model of the problem you want it to solve, and then construct the computer program in its terms." - Brian Cantwell Smith, The Limits of Correctness (1985) Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 15
  16. 16. On October 5, 1960, the American Ballistic Missile Early- Warning System indicated Soviet missiles headed towards the United States. The moon had risen, and was reflecting radar signals back to earth. Needless to say, this lunar reflection hadn't been predicted by the system's designers. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 16
  17. 17. Whose fault was it? Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 17
  18. 18. "...every act of conceptualization, analysis, categorization, does a certain amount of violence to its subject matter, in order to get at the underlying regularities that group things together."" - Brian Cantwell Smith, The Limits of Correctness (1985) Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 18
  19. 19. On Exactitude in Science A 1:1 scale map is not a useful abstraction. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 19
  20. 20. There will never be a correct data model. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 20
  21. 21. There will only be useful data models. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 21
  22. 22. What is a useful Data Model? As memory institutions, we structure and record information about objects. We do this because objects are representations of shared cultural knowledge. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 22
  23. 23. Seven ways to look at objects. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 23
  24. 24. Objects are Things. Objects exist in space and time. They have weight, and size, and are made of materials. They are conserved, moved, bought, sold, and described. These objects are related to people, events, and places through physical, legal, or social interaction. Example Data Models: LIDO, CIDOC-CRM, Schema.org, CDWA, MARC Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 24
  25. 25. Objects exist in Context. Objects are grouped, ordered, described, & summarized. These intellectual structures provide context and meaning to the objects as part of a larger whole. Example Data Models: EAD, ISAD(G), Dewey Decimal, RiC Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 25
  26. 26. Objects can be Reproductions. Objects have shared heritage with other objects. The physical or intellectual connections between a specific instance and an abstract work it reproduces can be essential to our understanding of that object. Example Data Models: FRBR, Bibframe Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 26
  27. 27. Objects have Proxies. Objects are represented as structured data. This includes data and digitized representations of an object. Proxies often have their own metadata describing the characteristics and context of the proxy. Example Data Models: IIIF, METS, Dublin Core, EXIF Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 27
  28. 28. Objects are Managed. Policies and rules govern interaction with objects. These codify how an object should be stored and what environment it should be kept in, who can access the object, and what restrictions apply to that access. Example Data Models: Rightsstatement.org, PREMIS Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 28
  29. 29. Objects can contain or embody Representations. Objects often depict or describe referents. These may be real times, places, objects, and people, or they may be fictitious. Example Data Models: GeoJSON, EAC, Iconclass,TEI Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 29
  30. 30. Objects are Intellectual Works. Objects interpret of the world around them. They are made with intent, within intellectual frameworks and genres, and others assign meaning and value to them. They can both participate in and engender argumentation and scholarship. Example Data Models: ??? Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 30
  31. 31. It's a little overwhelming, isn't it? Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 31
  32. 32. If you wish to make an apple pie from scratch, you must first invent the universe. — Carl Sagan Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 32
  33. 33. When eating an elephant take one bite at a time. — Creighton Williams Abrams Jr. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 33
  34. 34. Lessons Learned: Art Tracks How do you design a data model that represents the history of an object, and how do you express it using Linked Data? Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 34
  35. 35. Art TracksFunded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services. ca. 2013-2015 National Endowment for the Humanities, Kress Foundation, Paul Mellon Center ca.2016-2017 Originally, Art Tracks was a data visualization project. Only, we didn't have data. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 35
  36. 36. Traditional Provenance Durand-Ruel, Paris, August 23, 1872 [1]; Catholina Lambert, New Jersey; Lambert sale, American Art Association, Plaza Hotel, New York, NY, February 21, 1916 until February 24, 1916, no. 67; Durand-Ruel, Paris, until at least 1930; purchased by Simon Bauer, Paris, by June 1936 [2]; anonymous sale, Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc., February 25, 1970, no. 19 [3]; Sam Salz, Inc., New York, NY; purchased by Museum, May 1971. Notes: [1] bought from the artist. [2] Listed and illustrated in "List of Property Removed from France during the War 1939-1945" (no. 7114, as belonging to Simon Bauer). [3] "Highly Important Impressionist, Post-Impressionist & Modern Paintings and Drawings", illustrated. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 36
  37. 37. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 37
  38. 38. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 38
  39. 39. Why do we need Linked Data? (When modeling our objects) Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 39
  40. 40. Linked Open Data. I'm not going to talk about if we should share our data. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 40
  41. 41. Why do memory institutions create and share data? Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 41
  42. 42. Are we Publishers? Yes. But we do more than publish information—we generate our own. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 42
  43. 43. Are we Researchers? Yes. But we don't generate random information, we research specific objects. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 43
  44. 44. We are Collections. We don't just collect. We research, collect, and preserve information about our objects, as well as the events, people, and topics that give them context. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 44
  45. 45. The Promise of Linked Data: [The] creation of a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries, to be processed automatically by tools as well as manually, including revealing possible new relationships among pieces of data. — W3C Semantic Web Working Group Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 45
  46. 46. Linked Data: Where is this magical future? Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 46
  47. 47. What doesn't Linked Data do? Enable Web Scale AI Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 47
  48. 48. What doesn't Linked Data do? Create Easy Interoperability Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 48
  49. 49. What doesn't Linked Data do? Automate Reconciliation Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 49
  50. 50. What doesn't Linked Data do? Reduce our Workload Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 50
  51. 51. An awkward moment goes here. (This could be a very short talk.) Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 51
  52. 52. Linked Data is not a magic bullet. It's one of a many possible abstract data models, each of which have tradeoffs. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 52
  53. 53. Art Tracks, Phase II Funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities. ca. 2016-2017 How to express provenance information as: • Linked Open Data • JSON data structure • Standardized text All three forms must contain the same information, and we must be able to convert between them. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 53
  54. 54. Content Mgmt. Systems What we have. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 54
  55. 55. Scholarship, Shared Online What we want. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 55
  56. 56. Linked Open Data What we're talking about. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 56
  57. 57. Documents & Graphs Two different shapes for the same content. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 57
  58. 58. Documents, JSON & Graphs Three different shapes for the same content. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 58
  59. 59. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 59
  60. 60. Mary Cassatt, Young Women Picking Fruit. Carnegie Museum of Art. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 60
  61. 61. Mary Cassatt, Young Women Picking Fruit. Carnegie Museum of Art, 1894. Mary Cassatt [1844-1926], France; Galeries Durand-Ruel, Paris, France, by August 1892 [1]; Durand-Ruel Galleries, New York, NY, 1895; purchased by Department of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, October 1922. Notes: [1]. Recorded in stock book in August 1892. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 61
  62. 62. The Document The Timeline Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 62
  63. 63. Mary Cassatt, Young Women Picking Fruit. Carnegie Museum of Art, 1894. Mary Cassatt [1844-1926], France; Galeries Durand-Ruel, Paris, France, by August 1892 [1]; Durand-Ruel Galleries, New York, NY, 1895; purchased by Department of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, October 1922. Notes: [1]. Recorded in stock book in August 1892. Authorities: Mary Cassatt: see http://viaf.org/viaf/2478969/ Galeries Durand-Ruel: see http://viaf.org/viaf/153354503 Durand-Ruel Galleries: see http://viaf.org/viaf/134060200 Department of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute: see http://viaf.org/viaf/147742484 France: see http://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/1000070 Paris, France: see http://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/7008038 New York, NY: see http://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/7007567 Pittsburgh, PA: see http://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/7013927 Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 63
  64. 64. Reason #1: Linking to Other Authorities and the Local Heroes Problem Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 64
  65. 65. Authority, Identity, & Trust. We're making authoritative assertions about identity. We want to be the "source of truth" for the objects in our collections. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 65
  66. 66. Authority isn't free. Maintaining authority takes enormous time and resources. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 66
  67. 67. The world is vast. To fully describe everything that connects to our collection, we must describe the universe. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 67
  68. 68. Budgets are...less vast. How can we be authoritative without being encyclopedic? Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 68
  69. 69. Asserted Authority. When you want to be the authority of record for something or someone. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 69
  70. 70. NYPL Digital Collections Collection Records A canonical authority provided by an holding institution. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 70
  71. 71. Delegated Authority. When you want to point to someone who you trust to be the authority of record. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 71
  72. 72. Getty Vocabularies Shared Authority files One source of authority maintained by an trusted institution. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 72
  73. 73. Reluctant Authority. When you cannot find an authority you trust. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 73
  74. 74. MicroAuthority A minimalist CSV-based authority file Enables small institutions to connect to their local heroes Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 74
  75. 75. Mary Cassatt, Young Women Picking Fruit. Carnegie Museum of Art, 1894. Mary Cassatt [1844-1926], France; Galeries Durand-Ruel, Paris, France, by August 1892 [1]; Durand-Ruel Galleries, New York, NY, 1895; purchased by Department of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, October 1922. Notes: [1]. Recorded in stock book in August 1892. Authorities: Mary Cassatt: see http://viaf.org/viaf/2478969/ Galeries Durand-Ruel: see http://viaf.org/viaf/153354503 Durand-Ruel Galleries: see http://viaf.org/viaf/134060200 Department of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute: see http://viaf.org/viaf/147742484 France: see http://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/1000070 Paris, France: see http://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/7008038 New York, NY: see http://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/7007567 Pittsburgh, PA: see http://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/7013927 Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 75
  76. 76. Reason #2: Shared Semantics How do we know we're talking about the same thing? Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 76
  77. 77. JSON Data Structure This is understandable, If you're me. But you're not me. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 77
  78. 78. Linked Data as Documentation When I say "Transfer of Custody", I mean... Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 78
  79. 79. JSON-LD & CIDOC-CRM This is more complex, but that complexity is documented. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 79
  80. 80. What about the gaps? Nothing is comprehensive. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 80
  81. 81. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 81
  82. 82. museumprovenance.org/reference/acquisition_methods Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 82
  83. 83. Galeries Durand-Ruel, Paris, France, by August 1892 [1]; Notes: [1]. Recorded in stock book in August 1892. Authorities: Durand-Ruel Galleries: #1 http://viaf.org/viaf/134060200 Paris, France: see http://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/7008038 Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 83
  84. 84. Reason #3: Minimum Viable Collaboration Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 84
  85. 85. Getty Provenance Index Remodel Project Similar project, different goals. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 85
  86. 86. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 86
  87. 87. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 87
  88. 88. Four levels of provenance? Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 88
  89. 89. Reason #4: The unattainability of complete knowledge. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 89
  90. 90. Internal Transaction Events (Level Four)* Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 90
  91. 91. To Recap: 1. Shared Authority 2. Shared Understanding 3. Easy Collaboration 4. Planning for the Future Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 91
  92. 92. Two parts to my job: Data Software Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 92
  93. 93. What is Software? Software automates practice, allowing us to be more efficient. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 93
  94. 94. Digital data and software are utterly intertwined. We digitize data so that software can interact with it. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 94
  95. 95. LOUD: Linked, Open, Useful Data. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 95
  96. 96. Which of these is truer? — Probably born 1950. — Likely born 1950. Humans don't think about "Truer" that way... but computers do. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 96
  97. 97. Leaky abstractions. Recording something with the wrong abstraction can lose information. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 97
  98. 98. American Art Collaborative Modeling the collections of 14 institutions so that software can interact with them. Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 98
  99. 99. Linked Art: A standardized data model using CIDOC-CRM that describes the objectness of objects, designed to enable software development against Linked Open Data. http://linked.art Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 99
  100. 100. Thank you for listening! Questions? Learning Enrichment Session — David Newbury (@workergnome) 100

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