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  1. 1. Children and armed conflict An overview of legal and policy developments and thematic issues
  2. 2. Reading <ul><li>10 Year Strategic Review of Machel Study on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children . http:// /   </li></ul><ul><li>Child Soldiers Global Report 2008 , Chapter ‘Overview and Benchmarks’, http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>UN Security Council Resolution 1612 and Beyond, Strengthening Protection for Children in Armed Conflict , Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict (2009), Chapter ‘Executive Summary and Key Recommendations’. </li></ul><ul><li>Some children choose to be soldiers, study finds , By Dirk Vlasblom, NRC Handelsblad, 25 January 2010.,_study_finds </li></ul>
  3. 3. Machel Review video
  4. 5. <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Children do not belong in war. Ever. </li></ul><ul><li>They have the right to grow up free from fear and violence. </li></ul><ul><li>To develop their full potential and contribute to a peaceful future. </li></ul><ul><li>For themselves and others. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><li>War Child unleashes children’s inner strength </li></ul><ul><li>with a creative and involving approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering them to shape their own future. </li></ul>W ar Child Holland
  5. 6. W here do we work?
  6. 7. <ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psycho social Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation through ‘creativity’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict sensitivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 2015 efficiently support 1 million children/young people/key adults to become change agents in 15-20 conflict zones </li></ul></ul>W hat, how and why
  7. 8. <ul><li>DUTY BEARER </li></ul><ul><li>(State) </li></ul>RIGHTS HOLDER (Child) Child Rights programming = Programming Framework R ights - Duties Fulfill responsibilities Accountabi l ity P a r t i c i p a t i o n Exercise and claim rights
  8. 9. Sierra Leone advocacy
  9. 11. Section 1 – Overview of International Law and Developments
  10. 12. The changing nature of warfare <ul><li>War versus Armed conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type and number of actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military and civilian targets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typology of warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetric conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban violence </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Key concepts in relation to armed conflict <ul><ul><li>Human rights violations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nation state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace and security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of civilians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility to protect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanitarian vulnerability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanitarian access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Laws and norms <ul><li>Nation state responsible for the protection of civilians within its jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>“Despite the changing nature of warfare, there are always rules applicable of some form or another” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customary international law </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Other measures for protection of children <ul><li>National level measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>establishment of independent human rights institutions for girls and boys, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development of comprehensive action plans for children, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development of permanent governmental coordination mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>systematic monitoring, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adequate resource allocation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education/awareness raising, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>widespread engagement on the issues affecting children </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Impact of war on children – an overview <ul><li>Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in hostilities (19 th ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims of warfare (20 th ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit targets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human shields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suicide bombers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual violence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 billion children affected, 300 million < 5y/o </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Impact of war on children – an overview (2) <ul><li>Impact, multiple vulnerabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of humanitarian access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical survival – water, food, shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional wellbeing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeting educational facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakdown social fabric and family structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal safety and security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual assault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with the law </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Vulnerabilities and ‘agency’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactional sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child soldiering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ from a relatively young age, humans often consciously and effectively devise ways to make the best of their adverse life situations, and such efforts must be taken seriously, even if they entail grievous risks or lead to committing crimes that hurt other people.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul>Impact of war on children – an overview (3)
  17. 19. NRC Article
  18. 20. The main stakeholders: Who is accountable? <ul><li>Protective environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes, traditions, customs, behaviour and practices; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governmental commitment to fulfilling protection rights; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open discussion and engagement with child protection issues; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective legislation and enforcement; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The capacity of those who interact with children to protect them; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s life skills, knowledge and participation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and reporting of child protection issues; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services for recovery and reintegration. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. The main stakeholders: Who is accountable? <ul><li>Community level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family primary responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community support structures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enact legislative reform; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop, implement and monitor a child welfare and protection system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop, deliver and monitor quality, basic services to children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strengthen the capacities of families, communities and civil society to exercise their duties towards children </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>International level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UN General Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN Security Council, UN Secretary General </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN Special Representative on Children and Armed Conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Council Working Group, Group of Friends of Children and Armed Conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNICEF, UNHCR, World Food Program, Word Health Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations, - Political Affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affiars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In country taskforces Monitoring & Reporting on gravest violations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN Committee on the Rights of the Child </li></ul></ul>The main stakeholders: Who is accountable? (3)
  21. 23. Legal Developments and Current International Law <ul><li>International Humanitarian Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>regulates the methods and means of warfare and the treatment of people in times of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geneva Conventions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security Council Resolutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>International Human Rights Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>regulates the ways in which States treat people under their jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UN Convention on the Rights of the Child </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Legal Developments and Current International Law (2) <ul><li>Security Council Resolutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Resolutions on CAAC since 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Nations Security Council Resolution 1612: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six Grave Violations against Children in Armed Conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Killing or maiming of children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment or use of children as soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks against schools or hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of humanitarian access for children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abduction of children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rape and other grave sexual abuse of children </li></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Policy developments to Protect War-Affected Children <ul><li>Machel report </li></ul><ul><li>Special Representative </li></ul><ul><li>Cape Town Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Guiding principles on Internal Displacement </li></ul><ul><li>Peace agreement Sierra Leone – RUF (Lome) </li></ul><ul><li>Child Protection Advisers </li></ul><ul><li>UN conference Small Arms and Light Weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Education in Emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Sphere Project </li></ul><ul><li>European Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>IDDRRS Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Paris Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Machel report strategic review </li></ul><ul><li>UNHCR Guidelines on Best Interest of the Child </li></ul><ul><li>Peacekeeping Mission Evaluations and trainings </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Group on Civilian Protection </li></ul><ul><li>OCHA Mechanism on Humanitarian Access </li></ul>
  24. 27. Section 2 – Overview of Main Thematic Issues
  25. 28. Main issues <ul><li>Children Associated with Armed Forces and Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees and Internally Displaced Children </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual violence against children </li></ul><ul><li>Child labour </li></ul><ul><li>Landmines and cluster bombs </li></ul><ul><li>Small arms and light weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Child Victims, Witnesses and Perpetrators of Crimes </li></ul><ul><li>The Changing Role of Children in Peace Processes </li></ul>
  26. 29. Section 3 - Exercises <ul><li>Action for the Rights of Children ( ARC ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment Drama </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting the local leaders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 30. Poxy video