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2011 06 11 small-scale wind energy course_xd

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Small-scale wind energy course delivered at Greenworks, Dublin, June 2011. Course content compiled and delivered by Xavier Dubuisson, sustainable energy consultant at XD Consulting. Email: xavier@xdconsulting.eu

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2011 06 11 small-scale wind energy course_xd

  1. 1. Planning A Small-Scale Wind Generation SystemsOne-day training course<br />Xavier Dubuisson<br />Integrated Sustainable Design Consultant<br />XD Consulting<br />
  2. 2. Objectives of the course<br />Intro to micro-generation technologies and usual applications<br />Typical wind energy systems <br />Site survey<br />Expected electricity output<br />Conduct a simple lifecycle cost analysis<br />Grid-connected system layout and major components<br />Standards, regulations and approvals required<br />Health and safety issues<br />Installation and commissioning process<br />Financial incentives<br />© Xavier Dubuisson, XD Consulting<br />
  3. 3. Why micro-generation? <br />“Any fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. It takes a touch of genius - and a lot of courage - to move in the opposite direction.” Albert Einstein<br />Source: www.sunseries.net<br />© Xavier Dubuisson, XD Consulting<br />
  4. 4. Imported fuels<br />Indigenous fuels<br />© Xavier Dubuisson, XD Consulting<br />
  5. 5. Energy balance of electricity<br />NREAP: 40% by 2020 !<br />9.4% from renewables<br />55% losses<br />1/3<br />1/3<br />1/3<br />Source: SEI<br />
  6. 6. Electricity in Ireland<br />
  7. 7. Electricity, 2nd largest GHG contributor<br />Source: EPA, 2007<br />
  8. 8. Building Regs & BER<br />Same + 1.5 kW of PV<br />Semi-D, 112 m2<br />HRV<br />House of Tomorrow standard<br />In DEAP, 1 kWh of RESe produced = 2.7 kWh of primary energy saved<br />RES-e requirement (Part L 2007):4 kWh/m2,year or 600 kWh/year for average house<br />© Xavier Dubuisson, XD Consulting<br />
  9. 9. Micro-generation systems<br />
  10. 10. Micro Generation:<br />Micro generation is classified by ESB Networks as grid connected electricity generation up to a maximum rating of 11kW when connected to the three phase grid (400V). <br />The vast majority of domestic and agricultural customers are connected at single phase (230V) and for these customers to be classified as micro generators the maximum rating permitted is 6kW.<br />
  11. 11. Two Types of system<br />Stand Alone: Where generator is used to charge a battery bank.<br />Typically used in remote locations or ‘off-grid’ applications.<br />Grid Tied system: In this type of system, the output of the wind turbine is connected to the existing mains electricity supply to the home via a controller and inverter. Excess electricity generated can be sent onto the grid while electricity can be drawn from the grid when the turbine is not producing enough electricity to meet your needs.<br />
  12. 12. Solar Photovoltaic Energy<br />© Xavier Dubuisson, XD Consulting<br />
  13. 13. Small-scale hydro<br />
  14. 14. Micro-Combined Heat & Power<br />AC<br />© Xavier Dubuisson, DWEcoCo Ltd<br />
  15. 15. Basic Intro to Electricity<br />
  16. 16. Electrical terms<br />Voltage (V) – a measure of the Potential Difference across an electrical circuit measured in Volts. Analogous to water pressure pushing water round a plumbing circuit.<br />Current (I) – the electron flow in a circuit as a result of a PD across the circuit. Measured in Amps.<br />Resistance (R) – the point in an electrical circuit where work is done by ‘resisting’ current flow e.g. electric heater. Measured in Ohms. <br />V = IR (Ohms Law): an electrical circuit with a PD of 1 volt across a resistance of 1 ohm will result in a current of 1 amp<br />Power (P) in an electrical circuit: current x voltage or P = VI (Watts)<br />
  17. 17. Single phase AC electrical generator (Alternator)<br /><ul><li>AC results is an oscillating current flow. The rate of oscillation is called the Frequency (Hz)Reasons for using AC: Voltage can be stepped up or down easily and efficiently using a Transformer. This facilitates power transmission over long distances
  18. 18. DC results is a current flow in one direction from + to - . DC is produced by a dynamo, a battery, PV panels</li></li></ul><li>Energy<br />Power<br />Source: S. Wright, NREL<br />
  19. 19. Source: S. Wright, NREL<br />
  20. 20. Typical System Components & Layouts<br />
  21. 21. SYSTEM LAYOUT<br />
  22. 22. Stand-alone system<br />
  23. 23. The wind turbine<br />
  24. 24. Protection against excessive wind speed<br />Source: S. Wright, NREL<br />
  25. 25. Power in the wind <br />Turbine Power = ½  ρAV³  ρ= density of Air ( summer warm- low, winter cold- high )<br />A = Rotor area = πR² Increasing the diameter of the blades by 20% , increase power by 44% ! <br />V= Velocity of wind ; Cube factor doubling the wind speed increases the power 8 times .<br />Higher up , more wind speed ( less ground friction, obstructions, turbulence) <br />Bigger diameter= more swept area; <br />Bigger /higher requires larger towers to accommodate rotor size and access to maximum wind speeds<br />
  26. 26. http://www.windfinder.com/wind/windspeed.htm<br />Source: Fortis<br />
  27. 27. Example spec sheets<br />Source: Proven<br />Source: Proven <br />
  28. 28. Tower Types <br />
  29. 29. Grid-tied inverter<br />Functions and technical requirements:<br /><ul><li> Converts Direct Current into Alternative Current (pure sine wave)
  30. 30. Synchronizes the AC with the supply voltage
  31. 31. Make sure the generation system delivers its maximum power output
  32. 32. High efficiency at full and part loads
  33. 33. Automatic operation
  34. 34. Protection against grid outages (grid monitoring and islanding prevention)
  35. 35. Records and displays key operational data
  36. 36. Compliant</li></ul>© Xavier Dubuisson, XD Consulting<br />
  37. 37. The efficiency of aninverter<br />4-11<br />Grid-tied photovoltaic systems<br />
  38. 38. Sizing<br />
  39. 39. Electricity usage in houses<br />C. 1000 kWh/person, yr<br />C. 5000 kWh/household,yr<br />50 kWh/m2 floor area,yr<br />1 kWh = c.0.6 kg CO2<br />Save first!!!!!<br />Electricity end-use residential, 2006 (SEI)<br />© Xavier Dubuisson, XD Consulting<br />
  40. 40. Sizing according to electrical load<br />Base electrical loadsLimerick Co. Co. HQ (2007)<br />
  41. 41. …and your budget<br />
  42. 42. Site Survey<br />
  43. 43. SITE SURVEY<br />Avoid obstructions (turbulence) <br />Check wind speeds<br />Estimate effect of ‘roughness of site’ <br />Distance from buildings and party boundaries<br />Length of cabling (and trenching) <br />Location of plant room<br />
  44. 44. WIND SPEEDS<br />Source: www.met.ie<br />
  45. 45. Windmaps<br />Source: www.winddata.com<br />
  46. 46. SEI’s Wind Maps<br />http://maps.seai.ie/wind/<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Assessing a potential site<br />Site assessment tools; Anemometer and wind vein <br />Sited at the proposed height and location<br />Ideal site; top of gently sloping south westerly hill, little obstructions such as trees/ buildings<br />Windrose; speeds and direction <br />
  49. 49. Output from survey<br />600 hours not fast enough to reach a cut -in speed of 4 m/s; no power produced<br />
  50. 50. Roughness of site<br />Impact on wind speed<br />+9%<br />Effect on output<br />+160%<br />+212%<br />- 20%<br />+13%<br />- 32%<br />+17%<br />- 50%<br />+29%<br />
  51. 51. Turbulence on site<br />Impact on quality of the wind<br />Source: Centre for Alternative Technology<br />Effect: wrong direction, wrong speed, excessive wear & tear<br />
  52. 52. Source: www.kidwind.org<br />
  53. 53. Tower Height Matters<br /><ul><li>Wind speed increases with height
  54. 54. Small increases in wind speed result in large increases in power (e.g. 100 ft tower instead of 60 ft, 10% higher cost but 29% more power)
  55. 55. Tall towers often needed for clearance above obstacles (turbulence)
  56. 56. May require a variance or a special use permit</li></ul>20 m<br />10 m<br />
  57. 57. Other considerations<br />Safety: overhead cables, electrocution, fall of parts (& tower), etc.<br />Visibility: look at it from your neighbours’ point-of-view (reflections, shadows, view obstruction, etc.) – be sensitive<br />They do make noise (swish from blades, mechanical hum) <br />Special conservation areas, natural heritage, etc.<br />
  58. 58. Source: S. Wright, NREL<br />
  59. 59. Estimating annual output<br />
  60. 60. Turbine power curve<br />AEO = 1.6 kW x 365 x 24 = 14,000 kWh/year<br />
  61. 61. Source: S. Wright, NREL<br />
  62. 62. Manufacturers tools <br />Beware of over-optimistic prognostics<br />Wind speed distribution<br />10-15% most sites<br />0-5% water/smooth<br />Roughness<br />0.2 row crop, low bushes & few trees<br />Source: Proven Ltd<br />
  63. 63. Installation<br />
  64. 64.
  65. 65. Installation process<br />Installing the wind turbine<br />Mounting the inverter(s) on a suitable surface, preferably indoor on a wall in a room with adequate ventilation<br />Wiring on the DC and AC sides;<br />Earthing and lightning protection;<br />Inspection and testing of the system<br />Grid-connection and system commissioning<br />System handover to customer<br />© Xavier Dubuisson, DWEcoCo Ltd<br />
  66. 66. Other key considerations for installation<br />Strength of the roof structure<br />Ballasting (wind loads!) & anchoring<br />Integrity of water-tightness of building<br />Visual impact<br />Corrosion resistant materials<br />Anti-theft protection<br />Safety during & after installation<br />© Xavier Dubuisson, DWEcoCo Ltd<br />
  67. 67. Grid-connection<br />ESB Networks requirements:<br />Max. output 5.75 kW single phase, 11 kW triple phase<br />All electrical work carried out by registered electrical contractors (RECI)<br />Compliance with ETCI (Electro-technical Council of Ireland) wiring regulations <br />Compliance with EN50438 standard (“Requirements for the connection of micro-generation in parallel with public low-voltage distribution networks”)<br />Inverters type-tested for interface protection and synchronisation (certificate issued to ESB Networks & owner)<br />Labelling (warning noticeon need to isolate live parts)<br />© Xavier Dubuisson, DWEcoCo Ltd<br />
  68. 68. Grid-connection<br />Procedure (as per Conditions Governing the Connection and Operation of Micro-generation):<br />Inform: notify ESB Networks of intention to connect (From NC6)<br />Proceed if no contrary notification by ESB Networks within 5 working days of informing<br />Get contractor to forward a valid ETCI Electrical Completion Certificate to ESB Networks to get import/export meter installation.<br />Proceed with micro-generator installation<br />ESB Networks will install import/export meter (free of charge for first 4000, over 3 years)<br />© Xavier Dubuisson, DWEcoCo Ltd<br />
  69. 69. Life-cycle cost analysis <br />
  70. 70. Lifecycle cost analysis <br />Costs<br />Up-front capital cost (e.g. design & engineering, equipment, installation, civil works, electrical works, etc.)<br />Subsidies (grants, ACA, etc.)<br />Financing costs<br />Maintenance cost <br />End-of-life cost (e.g. decommissioning, removal & disposal, etc.)<br />Consider costs inflation (2-3%)<br />
  71. 71. Lifecycle cost analysis <br />Revenues<br />Electricity import substitution<br />Electricity exported<br />Other energy savings (dump load)<br />Incentives (CO2 tax, ROCs, etc.) <br />Residual value (e.g. scrap metal, potential future revenues, etc.)<br />Consider electricity inflation rate (10%)<br />
  72. 72. Cost of small-scale wind<br />Initial investment for quality: <br />2.5 kW turbine ~ €18-22,000 installed (incl.VAT)<br />6 kW turbine ~ €25-32,000 installed (incl.VAT)<br />10 kW turbine ~ €45-50,000 installed (incl.VAT)<br />Be mindful of cheaper products<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QL-cRuYAxg0<br />
  73. 73. Substituted electricity<br />Residential tariffs:<br />24 hr rate: €0.164/kWh<br />Day rate: 0.1752/kWh<br />Night rate: 0.0867/kWh<br />SMEs – General purpose tariffs<br />Standard: day rate: €0.1899/kWh night rate: €0.0872/kWh<br />Nightsaver: day rate: €0.1946/kWh night rate: €0.0872/kWh<br />© Xavier Dubuisson, DWEcoCo Ltd<br />
  74. 74. Microgen Export Tariff<br />ESB Networks offer 10c/kWh to every electricity customer (including through other electricity suppliers - tbc)<br />Open to first 4,000 customers applying<br />Applicable to the first 3,000 kWh exported per annum over the next 5 years<br />ESB Customer Supply offering further 9c/kWh to their customers for every unit exported<br />Interval meter provided free of charge<br />© Xavier Dubuisson, DWEcoCo Ltd<br />
  75. 75. Discounted cash flow<br />Future cash flows are discounted to present value (time value of money)<br />Net Present Value (NPV): total present value of a time series of cash flows. If NPV>0, then project worth doing. <br />Internal rate of return (IRR): yield on investment (%) – it’s the i that makes NPV = 0.If IRR> i then project worth doing. <br />t - the time of the cash flow; r – the discount rate; Ct - the net cash flow at time t<br />More info on whole life cycle cost http://www.wlcf.org.uk<br />
  76. 76. Accelerated Capital Allowance<br />Budget 2009 (consultation till 3 April 09)<br />100% of the capital cost of eligible equipment in the first year of purchase (equal 12.5% subsidy)<br />
  77. 77. Case Studies<br />
  78. 78. Belgooly, Co. Cork<br />
  79. 79.
  80. 80. Case Study 2<br />Sky Stream 3kw turbine, Ballydehob Cork<br /><ul><li>Hub Height 10 metres
  81. 81. Model Skystream 3.7
  82. 82. Rated Capacity 2.4 kW
  83. 83. Weight 170 lb (77 kg)
  84. 84. Rotor Diameter 12 ft (3.72 m)
  85. 85. Swept Area 115.7 ft 2 (10.87 m2)
  86. 86. Type Downwind rotor with stall
  87. 87. regulation control
  88. 88. Power production 3500kwhs p/a approx
  89. 89. Total investment €12-€14000 depending on site</li></li></ul><li>PLANNING & REGS<br />
  90. 90. Planning exemptions - wind<br />Plus: matt, non reflective finish, no interference with telecom signals <br />Not forward of front wall of the house. <br />No sign, advertisement, etc.<br />Outside Within 5 km (commercial)<br />1 turbine max within the curtilage of premises/building <br />
  91. 91. INTERESTING INNOVATIONS<br />
  92. 92. EMMA Controller – storing surplus output<br />9 kWh/Electric Vehicle<br />120 litres; 50°C; 5.3kWh/House = c.8,300 MWh<br />8 kWh/House = c.12,700MWh<br />Source: Tim Cooper ©<br />
  93. 93. EMMA in action<br />3 kW kettle switched off<br />3 kW kettle switched on<br />EMMA controller minimising controlled load<br />EMMA controller increases controlled load to track turbine output<br />EMMA controller matching household load to turbine output<br />5.5 kWp turbine; EMMA controller and 6 kW immersion<br />Source: Tim Cooper ©<br />
  94. 94. Solar Without Frontierswww.solarwithoutfrontiers.com<br />
  95. 95.
  96. 96. “The Sun, with all the planets revolving around it, and depending on it, can still ripen a bunch of grapes as though it had nothing else in the Universe to do." Galileo Galilei<br />Get in touch:<br />xavier@xdconsulting.eu<br />
  97. 97. Seadream Cottage, Clonakilty<br />
  98. 98. Ballinglanna, Clonakilty<br />c.7%<br />c.17%<br />c.15%<br />c.15%<br />c.13%<br />
  99. 99. Case Study<br />Fenore Co. Clare<br />Annual Electricity Usage 18,000 kw Hrs<br />Site Location avg wind speed 9m/s<br />Excellent Elevated Location with clear views South and West<br />
  100. 100. Exercise 2 (wind)<br />Site: <br />Coastal, roughness category 1<br />Average wind speed (@ 20 m) = 7.8 m/s<br />Annual electricity demand: 12,500 kWh/yr<br /><ul><li>Wind turbine:
  101. 101. Proven 6 kW
  102. 102. Height of rotor: 10 m</li></li></ul><li>Exercise 2 (wind)<br />Calculate average wind speed at rotor height = _____ m/s<br />Measure average power output = ______ kW<br />Calculate annual expected output = _______ kWh/year<br />Calculate annual CO2 avoided = _______ kg/year<br />Estimate electricity exported (40%) = _______ kWh/year<br />Estimate electricity substituted (60%) = _______ kWh/year<br />
  103. 103. Exercise 2 (wind)<br />Calculate average wind speed at rotor height = 7.8 – 13% = 6.8 m/s<br />Measure average power output = power curve shows 2 kW<br />Calculate annual expected output = 2*365*24 =17,520 kWh/year<br />Calculate annual CO2 avoided = 17,520 * 0.6 kg/kWh = 10,512 kg/year<br />Estimate electricity exported (40%) = 7008 kWh/year<br />Estimate electricity substituted (60%) = 10512 kWh/year<br />
  104. 104. Exercise 3 (LCC)<br />Based on exercise 2 (wind)<br />Revenue from export: ____ kWh x 10 c/kWh = _____ €/year____ kWh x 9 c/kWh = _____ €/year <br />Revenue from substitution (standard domestic rate):____ kWh x ____ c/kWh = _____ €/year<br />Total gross annual revenue = ______ €/year<br />Potential carbon tax credit (30 euro/tCO2) = ______ €/year<br />
  105. 105. Exercise 3 (LCC)<br />Capital cost (6 kW) = € _____<br />Grant from SEI = € _____<br />Cost of borrowing (50% @ 8% over 5 y.) = € 2150<br />Net initial cost = € _____<br />Maintenance cost (1% annually) = ____ €/year<br />Net annual revenue (w.o. carbon tax) = _____ €/year<br />Simple payback = ____ years<br />
  106. 106. Exercise 3 (LCC)<br />Based on exercise 2 (wind)<br />Revenue from export: 3000 kWh x 10 c/kWh = 300 €/year7008 kWh x 9 c/kWh = 630 €/year <br />Revenue from substitution:10512 kWh x 16.4 c/kWh = 1723 €/year<br />Potential carbon tax credit (30 euro/tCO2) = 315 €/year<br />Total gross annual revenue = 2968 €/year<br />
  107. 107. Exercise 3 (LCC)<br />Capital cost (6 kW) = € 32,000<br />Cost of borrowing (50% @ 8% over 5 y.) = € 3340<br />Net initial cost = € 35340<br />Maintenance cost (1% annually) = 320 €/year<br />Net annual revenue (w. carbon tax) = 2648 €/year<br />Simple payback = 13 years<br />

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