Instrucciones <ul><li>‘ Verbos’ is a presentation designed to get you thinking about your reading exam. It will help you to learn 50 common verbs used in Spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>It ’s not just about 50 verbs though; it also includes other types of words that are related to the verbs. For example look at the 3 words below. We have a verb, adjective and noun all linked to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>( seguir – to follow / siguiente – following / seguidores – followers) </li></ul><ul><li>VERB ADJECTIVE NOUN </li></ul>Learning 50 verbs will help you in your exams but learning how to use patterns and intuition from what you already know is a powerful linguistic tool. At the end there is a section for cognate verbs as well!!! Move on to next screen to begin. I do not own Lady Gaga
1. Seguir – to follow / to continue El caracol sigue la tortuga Sigue todo recto Si sigues comiendo comida basura, vas a engordarte El día siguiente Tienes que seguir este curso de medicina Los seguidores del cristianismo leen la biblia The snail follows the tortoise The following day If you continue eating junk food, you ’ll get big Carry straight on You have to follow this course of medicine The followers of christianity read the bible Can you see how there are verbs, adjectives and nouns linked here? Try to see the patterns and distinguish the different types of word linked by a meaning. ADJECTIVE NOUN VERB Main menu
2. Pedir – to ask for / to order ¿Qué vas a pedir en el restaurante? Hoy hice un pedido de un nuevo ordenador Pidió la mano de su novia What are you going to order in the restaurant? Today I made an order for a new computer He asked for his girlfriend ’s hand (in marriage) Sometimes you don ’t recognise a verb because the spellings are different from tense to tense. Try to recognise the consonants and then think about verbs you know with these consonants ...p..d = poder /pedir Main menu
3. Buscar – to look for/to search La policía busca a un ladrón con gafas Fui a la biblioteca en busca de un libro sobre arte Busco la playa The police are looking for a thief with a glasses I went to the library in search of a book about art I ’m looking for the beach Main menu See how sometimes you recognise a verb in a phrase. Also, you can see that sometimes Spanish uses 1 word to express 2, 3 or 4 English words. ‘ Busco’ = I’m looking for
4a. Sonreír – to smile / 4b. Reírse – to laugh Main menu Sonríe y el mundo sonreirá contigo Smile and the world will smile with you El mensaje me hizo reír mucho The message made me laugh a lot Tiene una risa contagiosa She has a contagious laugh Su sonrisa es un poco espantosa His smile is a bit scary Try to associate these two verbs with each other as they are very close in meaning. Some people think of special ways to remember which is which: the ‘sun’ smiles at you (but doesn’t normally laugh) so ‘ son reír’ = to smile.
5. Elegir/Escoger – to choose Main menu Es difícil elegir entre los dos candidatos It ’s difficult to choose between the 2 candidates Tendrás que escoger la puerta correcta You ’ll have to choose the correct door Fue una prueba de elección multiple It was a multi-choice test Sometimes you come across words which are cognates but would not be translated by their English equivalent. ‘ Elección’ looks like ‘ election’ but if you look more carefully at the sentence then a better translation would be the word ‘ choice’
6. Aumentar/Subir – to raise/to go up/to increase Main menu Me gustaría aumentar de peso I would like to increase my weight La temperatura aumentará a 30 grados este verano The temperature will rise to 30˚ this summer La subida se hace a pie – No hay funicular The climb is made on foot – There is no cable car Hay un subibaja en el jardín There is a seesaw in the garden Sometimes verbs are used to make nouns like the example here. You can guess what they mean by putting the words together. Espantar = to scare Pájaros = birds Un espantapájaros = A scarecrow
7. Gastar – to spend Main menu Gasté mi dinero en un concierto de JLS I spent my money on a JLS concert El presidente no controla los gastos de su mujer The president doesn ’t control his wife’s spending No quiero malgastar mi tiempo con planchar la ropa I don ’t want to waste my time with ironing the clothes If you know ‘mal’ means ‘bad’ then you should be able to guess that it gives a negative meaning to a word ... gastar – spend malgastar – waste ... educado – polite maleducado - rude
8. Saber – to know (something) Main menu Sé que Juan no sabe nadar I know that Juan doesn ’t know how to swim La profesora es una persona muy sabia The teacher is a very knowledgeable person Odio a Marco – es un sabelotodo I hate Marco – he ’s a know-it-all El helado sabe a fresa* Be aware that many times there are words like ‘ sé – i know’ that look nothing like their infinitives ... ‘ saber – to know’. The ice cream tastes of strawberries* Don ’t be tempted to make bad judgments on a sentence’s meaning just because you think you know a word. ‘ Saber ‘ means ‘to know’ but ‘ Saber a’ means ‘to taste of’ ‘ It would be a bad judgment to think the sentence below means ‘ The ice cream knows the strawberry’!
9. Conocer – to know (someone) / to meet Main menu Nos conocimos en Las Vegas We met in Las Vegas Italia es un país conocido por su comida Conozco al jefe del tribú I know the chief of the tribe Italy is a country known for its food Tengo algunos conocimientos de la cultura japonesa I have some knowledge of japonese culture Sometimes verbs are used with a reflexive pronoun ‘nos’ to translate the idea of ‘each other’. For example ‘Nos vemos’ – ‘We see each other’ ‘ Nos conocemos’ – We meet each other / We know each other
10. Dar – to give Main menu Dale las llaves a Pedro Give the keys to Pedro Doy un paseo por el parque cada día I go for a walk around the park every day Su padre le dio un reloj para su cumpleaños His father gave him a watch for his birthday Las noticias me dieron mucha pena The news made me very sad Sometimes verbs are used for literally thousands of phrases. Unfortunately the verb ‘dar’ sometimes does not translate as ‘to give’ in some of these phrases. ‘ Dar mucha pena’ literally means ‘to give lots of pain’ (to make someone sad)
11. Pasar – to spend (time)/to pass / to happen Main menu ¿Qué pasa? What ’s happening ? Para llegar al aeropuerto, tienes que pasar por el estadio To get to the airport, you have to pass by the stadium Voy a pasar un año estudiando en China I ’m going to spend a year in China La semana pasada había manifesticaciones Last week there were demonstrations ‘ Pasar’ is a verb with lots and lots of meanings in Spanish as well as English. Always try to decide which definition makes the best sense. ‘ ¿Me pasas las patatas por favor?’ ‘Will you pass me the potatoes please?’
12. Encontrar – to find / to meet Main menu No puedo encontrar mi pasaporte I can ’t find my passport Le encuentro un poco hablador I find him a little chatty Me encontré un poco mareado I felt a bit dizzy Bla bla bla El teatro se encuentra en las afueras del pueblo The theatre is found on the outskirts of town The smallest words can help you figure out meaning: Le = him/her ( me = me... te = you... nos = us ) Encuentro un poco hablador??? I find a bit chatty X Le encuentro un poco hablador – I find him a bit chatty √ Often verbs are reflexive which means you add ‘myself, yourself etc to the meaning. Here it has the meaning of ‘ I found myself a bit dizzy ’ It’s not exactly how we’d say it but it makes sense.
13. Pagar – to pay Main menu ¿Es posible pagar en metálico? Is it possible to pay in cash? Para reservar los billetes necesitamos un pago adelantado Mis padres me pagan los estudios My parents pay for my studies To reserve the tickets, we need payment in advance Some verbs in Spanish would be 2 words in English: ‘ pagar’ = to pay for ‘ buscar’ = to look for Try to take the words in a sentence and make sense of them ‘ My parents me pay the studies’ My parents pay for my studies
14. Ayudar – to help Main menu Las ayudantes del mago se cortan en dos. The magician ’s helpers are cut in two Ayudaba en la cocina antes del accidente con el pastel I used to help in the kitchen before the accident with the cake Necesito tu ayuda con este proyecto I need your help with this project Make sure you pick up on the word ‘de’ in the exam. It shows you what belongs to what: El primer día del verano – The first day of summer Música de todos los estilos – Music of all styles Los conductores de Madrid – Drivers from Madrid
15. Conseguir – to achieve / to get Main menu El director consiguió un gran éxito The director achieved great success Es importante conseguir la diagnosis apropiada temprano It ’s important to get the correct diagnosis early No vas a conseguir el respeto si gritas You ’re not going to get respect if you shout Be aware that there are many ‘false friends’ in Spanish (words that appear to be cognates but mean something completely different) E.G éxito = success actual = current sensible = sensitive avisar = to warn
16. Poder – to be able to (can) Main menu Aqui no se puede fumar You can ’t smoke here La viuda no pudo creer lo que oyó The widow couldn ’t believe what she heard Tenemos el poder de salvar el medio ambiente We have the power to save the environment Ha comprado una moto muy poderosa He has bought a very powerful motorbike Verbs like poder are so common that it will probably appear 9-10 times in a reading exam. You must know its different uses: (se puede – you can) (podrías – you could) and particularly its noun and adjective forms: (poder – power) (poderoso) powerful.
17. Esperar 1 – To hope Main menu Espero que no llueva I hope that it doesn ’t rain Hay esperanza que la cumbre producirá una solución There is hope that the conference will produce a solution ¿Juan tiene el anillo?... Espero que sí Does Juan have the ring?... I hope so Se espera que los huelguistas vuelvan en dos días It is hoped that the strikers will return in two days When you use ‘se’ + a verb, it becomes passive. This means it translates as ‘It is + verb’ Confused ??? Ok Here are some examples: 1.Esperar = to hope & Se espera = It is hoped 2. Decir = To say & Se dice = It is said + Se dijo = It was said 3. Llamar = To call & Se llama = It is called 4. Conseguir = To achieve & Se consigue = It is achieved
18. Esperar 2 – to wait Main menu Llevo dos horas esperando el autobús I ’ve been waiting 2 hours for the bus El gato se apostó en espera de un ratón The cat sat down in expectation of a mouse La madre y su niña están en la sala de espera The mother and her child are in the waiting room Esperar can mean ‘to wait’, ‘to hope’ or ‘to expect’. The exam will probably include this verb to test that you know these different meanings. Use your common sense to work out which meaning the verb has. e.g Espero que venga Juan – I hope Juan comes Espero a Juan – I ’m waiting for Juan
19. Vivir – to live Main menu Vivía en Australia pero ahora vivo en Dinamarca I used to live in Australia but now i live in Denmark No quedó nadie vivo en esta obra Nobody was left alive in this play Fue una fiesta muy viva It was a very lively party Van a construir un bloque de 50 viviendas They are going to make a block of 50 homes To test your ability to understand written language, the examiner will replace common words like ‘casa’ or ‘hogar’ with words like ‘vivienda’ to mean house/home. Don ’t be put off by this. Use your head and any language you previously learnt to help yourself out. Puerta = Door Salida = Exit (from salir – to go out) Comida = Food Cena = Dinner (from cenar – to eat dinner )
20. Volver – to return / to go back Main menu A la vuelta paramos para gasolina On the return journey we stopped for petrol Dieron una vuelta por el parque They took a turn around the park Volvió a su casa He returned home Ha vuelto a tomar drogas She started to take drugs again Think about the verb ‘volver a’ It would literally translate as ‘to return to’ but it is used to mean ‘to do something again’ or ‘to go back to doing something’. Volver a empezar = to start again Volver a ocurrir = to happen again
21. Casarse – to get married Main menu Me caso mañana en la iglesia I ’m getting married tomorrow in church Nos casamos hace cincuenta años We got married 50 years ago Los novios quieren casarse en Dubai The bride and groom want to marry in Dubai Remember that some verbs are reflexive so in the infinitive they have ‘se’ at the end. Casar se – to get married Lavar se – to have a wash This changes according to who is performing the action Quiero casar me – I want to get married ¿Quieres casar te ? – Do you want to get married?
22. Viajar – to travel Main menu Los viajeros siempre van a la torre Eiffel Travellers always go to the Eiffel Tower El viaje de vuelta era un poco picado The return journey was a bit choppy Viajé en coche desde Londres a Leeds I travelled by car from London to Leeds The endings ‘eros’ ‘antes’ & ‘ores’ are usually added to a verb to make a noun for people who perform the verb... 1 (viajar = to travel + viajero = traveller) (Obrar = to work + obrero = worker) 2 (caminar = to walk + caminante = hiker) (ayudar = to help + ayudante = helper) 3 ( jugar = to play + Jugadores = Players) (fumar = to smoke + fumador = smoker)
23. Cuidar – to take care of Main menu Pone mucho cuidado en su higiene She takes lots of care over her hygiene Tengo que cuidar de mi hermano menor I have to take care of my little brother La funámbula es muy cuidadosa The tight-rope walker is very careful Debes cuidar la ortografía You need to take care over your spelling Again take notice that there are 3 different types of word here: noun, adjective and verb. We could also add ‘cuidadosamente’ = ‘carefully’
24. Hacer – to do/to make Main menu Me hizo llorar He made me cry Hago los deberes en la biblioteca I do my homework in the library Pasaremos la clase haciendo investigaciones We will spend the class doing investigations Tengo que hacer la cama todas las mañanas I have to make my bed every morning Hacer is a very common verb so be aware that it has lots of meanings but generally these are ‘to do’ or ‘to make’ . Try to bear this in my mind when deciding what sentences mean. ‘ Hacer una llamada’ – To make a call ‘Hacer bien en algo’ – ‘To do well’
25. Ponerse/Hacerse – to become Main menu They became friends during summer Se hicieron amigos durante el verano Se hizo millionario con su empresa He became a millionaire with his business Se puso enfadada con el servicio He got angry with the service Si te pones triste, llámame a mi casa If you get sad, call my house Sometimes the reflexives verbs have very different meanings from the non-reflexive versions. Hacer = to do/make Hacerse = to become Poner = to put Ponerse = to become producir = to produce producirse = to take place
26. Preguntar – to ask Main menu Me hicieron varias preguntas en la entrevista They asked me lots of questions in the interview Me pregunto si el cartero ha venido I wonder if the postman has come Le pregunté por su madre I asked after his mother Remember that reflexive verbs generally mean doing something to yourself... Lavo – I wash Me lavo – I wash myself Pregunto – I ask Me pregunto – I ask myself (I wonder)
27a. Cerrar – to close 27b. Abrir – to open Main menu Cierra la boca ahora! Close your mouth now! Creo que la tienda está abierta el lunes I think that the shop is open on Monday Señor Fernández es muy cerrado – No dice mucho Mr Fernández is very closed – He doesn ’t say much Ábreme la puerta por favor Open the door please Verbs sometimes have past participles which become adjectives: (Abrir – open Abierta- opened) (Cerrar – close Cerrado – closed) This is the normal pattern... Tomar = Tomado-taken Comer = Comido – eaten Visitar = Visitado-visited dañar = dañado - damaged
28a. Llegar – to arrive 28b. Salir – to leave Main menu Llegadas Salidas Arrivals Departures Siempre llega tarde He always arrives late Me llegó el fax por la mañana The fax got to me in the morning El jefe había salido de viaje con su esposa The boss had left on holiday with his wife Try to remember verbs of opposite pairs (llegar & salir) Other pairs include (1. abrir-open & cerrar-close) (2. ganar-win & perder-lose) (3. empezar-start & acabar-finish) (4. aparecer-appear & desaparecer-disappear)
29a. Empezar – to start 29b.Acabar – to finish Main menu La chica acabó ganando el premio The girl ended up winning the prize Voy a acabar con este ordenador inútil con mi hacha I ’m going to finish off this useless computer with my axe Para empezar voy a tomar el pescado To start with i ’ll have the fish Ha empezado a nevar It has started to snow In the first exercise we have the word ‘ ganando’ which means ‘winning’ This is called a ‘gerund’ and there is a pattern for recognising them. They translate as verb+ing in English -ar verbs (tom ando = talking) (empez ando = starting) -er&-ir verbs (com iendo = eating) (vivi endo = viving)
30. Cambiar – to change Main menu Quiero cambiar 100 dólares en euros I want to change 100 dollars into euros El mecánico me cambió el neumático The mechanic changed my tyre Habrá muchos cambios en este departamento There will be lots of changes in this department Estamos cambiando los muebles We are changing the furniture Cambiar is a really important verb to know as it appears frequently in the exam. Try to focus on learning verbs like cambiar which aren ’t cognates – the more of these you know, the less chance there is of you coming across vocabulary you don’t understand.
31. Llevar – to wear/to carry/to take Main menu Mi padre nos llevó a cenar My father took us out to dinner Me encanta el perfume que llevas I love the perfume you ’re wearing Llevaba a la niña en sus brazos He was carrying the girl in his arms El avión lleva una hora de retraso The plane is an hour late The verb ‘llevar’ has lots of translations in English; however in Spanish it means literally ‘ to take with you’. This could mean carrying something, wearing something, giving someone a lift etc. The final example is more difficult to understand: it is used to suggest an amount of time that has already gone ‘ llevo una hora esperando’ – ‘I’ve been waiting an hour’ ‘ llevamos dos años juntos’ – ‘We’ve been together for 2 years’
32. Creer – to believe Main menu Se cree que el incendio fue provocado It is thought that the fire was started deliberately No puedo apoyar un partido con creencias racistas I can ’t support a party with racist beliefs Trescientas libras para un empaste! No lo puedo creer! 300 pounds for a filling! I can ’t believe it Pronouns like ‘lo’ and ‘la’ refer back to something already mentioned (masc or fem) ‘ los’ and ‘las’ = plural When you find them in reading exams, try to figure out what they are being used for. Me gustan los taxis – los uso todos los días I like taxis – I use them every day
33. Parecer – to seem/to appear Main menu Parece mentira que tenga 60 años It seems false that she ’s 60 years old Pareces una reina en ese vestido You look like a queen in that dress ¿Vamos a la discoteca?, ¿Qué te parece? Shall we go to the disco, what do you think? El padre y su hijo son muy parecidos The father and his son are very similar Parecer is often used in opinion phrases to replace more common verbs like (pensar, ser and creer) Instead of saying ‘Creo que está equivocado’ ‘I think he is wrong’ they may write ‘ me parece que está equivocado’ ‘It seems to me he is wrong’ Or in other opinion phrases ‘¿Qué te parecen las flores?’ ‘What do you think of the flowers?
34. Hay que – You must Main menu Hay que seguir una dieta equilibrada You have to follow a balanced diet No había que ser genio para entender a Einstein You didn ’t have to be a genius to understand Einstein Habrá que cruzar el desierto You will have to cross the desert Everyone knows ‘ Hay’ = ‘there is/there are ’ Good students know ‘ Había’ = ‘There was’ ‘ Habrá’ = ‘There will be’ A student wanting to get A/A* needs to know ‘ Hay que’ = ‘You must’ ‘ Había que’ = ‘You had to’ ‘ Habrá que’ = ‘You will have to’ Try to know verbs in more than one tense; especially those as common as ‘hay’
35. Sentir(se) – to feel Main menu Me siento avergonzado I feel embarrassed Lo siento mucho – rompí tu bicicleta I ’m really sorry – I broke your bike Sentía hambre cuando salí del gimnasio I felt hungry when i came out of the gym No me hables, me has herido los sentimientos Don ’t speak to me, you’ve hurt my feelings Make sure you know set phrases like ‘lo siento’ for ‘I’m sorry’ and also remember that ‘sentir’ can be used to substitute for verbs like ‘estar’ and ‘tener’ when used to talk about feelings... Estoy alegre/ Me siento alegre – I am happy Tenía sed / Me sentía sed – I was thirsty
36. Querer – to want / to love Main menu ¿Cuánto quieres por el coche? How much do you want for the car? Te quiero mucho mi amor I love you lots my darling Lo dije totalmente sin querer I said it totally by accident El chico no quiso comer nada The boy didn ’t want to eat anything Querer is another very common verb, you have probably come across it in ‘quisiera’ ‘i would like’ or ‘cuando quiera’ ‘whenever’ ‘ Sin + a verb’ is another common phrase type in Spanish.... Sin querer (without wanting to) Sin pensar (without thinking) Sin pagar (without paying)
37. Deber – to have to (must) Main menu Debemos reciclar para salvar el medio ambiente We must recycle to save the environment Se debe comer más fruta para estar sana You must eat more fruit to be healthy Los deberes son muy importantes Homework is very important Para un soldado, ir a la guerra es su deber For a soldier, going to war is a duty Deber is another very common verb used in many different ways. You ’ve probably come across ‘deberías’ -‘you should’ ‘debido a’ -‘owing to’ ‘se debe’ - ‘you must’ Try to remember the nouns ‘deber’ – ‘duty’ and ‘deberes’ – ‘homework’ Also the verb can mean ‘to owe’ ... ‘Me deben dos’ – ‘They owe me 2’
38a. Nacerse– to be born 38b. Morir - to die Main menu At birth he was named after his father Me muero de frío I ’m freezing to death Mi fecha de nacimiento es el dos de junio 1978 My date of birth is the 2 nd June 1978 Al nacer fue llamado por su padre La muerte de César es una escena famosa The death of Caesar is a famous scene The sentence al+verb gives the idea of ‘upon doing’ or ‘on doing’ For example ‘al salir’ = ‘upon leaving’ ‘al darse cuenta de’ = ‘on realising’
39. Decir – to say Main menu ¿Cómo se dice ‘tren’ en ruso? How do you say ‘train’ in Russian? Voy a decirle a Patricia que es mi novio I ’m going to tell Patricia that he’s my boyfriend Juan dijo que va a hacer sol hoy Juan said it ’s going to be sunny today Dicho documento es totalmente secreto Said document is totally secret Decir can mean ‘to tell’ or ‘to say’. Both are extremely common in exams. The adjective ‘dicho’ meaning ‘said’ is used the same way in English to describe something already mentioned... ’ Dicho hombre trabaja aquí’ ‘Said man works here’ (man already mentioned) ‘ En dichas ciudades’ ‘In said cities’ (in the cities already mentioned)
40. Enseñar – to teach / Aprender – to learn Main menu Le enseñaron a nadar a los seis años They taught him to swim at 6 years old He aprendido el alfabeto árabe de memoria I ’ve learnt the arabic alphabet by heart Mi hermana enseña inglés en la universidad My sister teaches English at the university Su capacidad de aprendizaje es increíble His ability to learn is incredible Again, try to link nouns to verbs... Aprendizaje – learning Enseñanza – teaching sabiduría – knowledge/wisdom
41. Mejorar – to improve Main menu El tratamiento la mejoró The treatment made her better Es mejor futbolista que su hermano He is a better footballer than his brother Es la mejor violinista de su generación She is the best violinist of her generation You must be careful with words like ‘mejor’ and ‘peor’ . On their own they mean ‘better’ and ‘worse’; however ‘el mejor’ and ‘ la mejor’ mean ‘ the best’ and ‘the worst’.
42. Empeorar – to get worse Main menu La situación es cada vez peor en los hospitales The situation in hospitals is worse and worse El tiempo empeoró durante la noche The weather got worse during the night The phrase cada vez + adjective is used to express the idea of something getting ‘worse and worse’ or ‘more and more silly’. For example ‘ Cada vez mejor’ -‘Better and better’ ‘ Cada vez menos sensible’ – ‘Less and less sensitive’
43. Desarrollar – to develop Main menu Han desarrollado un nuevo tipo de móvil They ’ve developed a new type of mobile Inglaterra es un país desarrollado pero Nigeria es un país en desarollo England is a developed country but Nigeria is a developing country El deporte me permite desarrollar mi aspecto físico Sport lets me develop my physical appearance Sometimes a noun linked to a verb can be used to make a phrase: ‘ Desarrollo’ = ‘development’ ‘ En desarrollo’ = In development’ or ‘developing’
44. Dejar – to leave Main menu Dejé mi maleta en el aeropuerto I left my suitcase in the airport Quiero dejar de fumar porque es caro I want to give up smoking because its expensive ¿Me dejas tu collar? Will you lend me your necklace? Dejaron incompletas las nuevas casas They left the new houses unfinished Dejar is used in many different meanings ‘to leave’, ‘to let’ ‘to lend’ ‘to stop’ You need to understand the general idea of it meaning ‘to leave something behind’; even when this is a habit or an action (like smoking)
45. Perder – to lose / to miss Main menu Nunca pierdo un episodio de mi telenovela favorita I never miss an episode of my favourite soap Estamos totalmente perdidos We ’re totally lost Los gemelos son malos perdedores The twins are bad losers Comprar una moto es una pérdida de dinero Buying a motorbike is a waste of money Often verbs are converted to adjectives by a change in spelling.... Perder = Perdido-lost Entender = Entendido-understood These can be used with ‘estar’ to be... Mi madre está herida – My mother is injured El perrito está desarrollado – The puppy is developed (grown up)
46. Olvidar – to forget Main menu Es un chico muy olvidadizo He ’s a forgetful boy Olvidé meter la ropa en la lavadora I forgot to put the clothes in the washer La cantante cayó en el olvido después de dos álbumes The singer fell into obscurity/was forgotten after two albums We ’ve seen a few adjectives coming from verbs. ‘Olvidadizo’ is an example of this. Poder – Poderoso = Powerful Cambiar – Cambiante = Changing
47. Herir – to injure Main menu Tiene una herida bastante grave después de una caída He has quite a serious injury after a fall No puede jugar – está herida She can ’t play – she’s injured El hombre que hirió a la víctima ha recibido un castigo de tres años The man who injured the victim has received a 3 year sentence Try not to ignore the word ‘que’ as it may give a lot of information about the word it follows. It generally means ‘who’ or ‘that’ E.g ‘El hombre que recibió el premio era sueco’ ‘ The man who received the prize was Swedish’
48. Sacar – to take out Main menu Me sacaron sangre como prueba They took some blood as a test Por favor, no saques la lengua Please, don ’t stick your tongue out Quiero un sacapuntas I want a pencil sharpener ¿Me buscas un sacacorchos? Will you find me a corkscrew? Some words are combinations of nouns and verbs like the two examples below. There are quite a few examples of these in Spanish. Matamoscas = Fly swatter Sacamuelas = dentist (slang)
49. Entender– to understand Main menu No entiendo por qué no quieres saltar I don ’t understand why you won’t jump Se entienden por señas They communicate to each other by sign language Según tengo entendido, quieres un préstamo de £5000 As i understand it you want a loan of £5000 Apart from ‘no’ there are many words which are used to make sentences negative in Spanish. jamás / nunca = never nadie = nobody nada = nothing jamás doesn ’t begin with n so people sometimes forget its meaning!!
50. Leer – to read Main menu Me encanta leer / Me encanta la lectura I love to read / I love reading Mi madre sabe leer los labios My mum knows how to lip-read Los lectores del periódico estarán chocados The newspaper readers will be shocked Estaba leyendo una revista de moda I was reading a fashion magazine Remember that adjectives usually come after the noun in Spanish so it ’s important to read (and take notice of) the entire sentence. If you were asked in an exam to say whether the woman in the 4 th example likes clothes, you would ’ve needed to notice she was a reading ‘una revista de moda ’ not just ‘una revista’.
COGNATES Underneath is a list of cognates you will come across while learning Spanish. Practice flick in corner...click to start frustar –to frustrate desaparecer – to disappear acompañar – to accompany apresurarse – to pressurise contentar – to make happy decidir – to decide funcionar – to function / work desear – to desire discutir – to discuss encontrar – to encounter / find entrar – to enter escapar – to escape intentar – to try / intend interesarse – to be interested in invitar – to invite merecer – to merit / deserve perdonar – to pardon / forgive terminar – to end tocar – to touch adorar – to adore/to love comentar – to comment/say estudiar – to study explicar – to explain contestar – to reply detener – to detain / to arrest usar – to use visitar – to visit aparcar – to park reflejar – to reflect relajar – to relax deprimir – to depress oprimir – to oppress impresionar – to impress ascender – to ascend/ go up descender – to descend /go down cubrir – to cover descubrir – to discover describir – to describe guardar – to guard/to keep salvar –to save dañar – to damage prohibir – to prohibit/ ban recibir – to receive sufrir – to suffer seleccionar – to select mover – to move iniciar – to initiate/start construir –to construct destruir – to destruct durar – to last emplear – to employ fabricar – to make formar – to form informar – to inform liberar – to free notar – to note ocupar – to occupy ocuparse – to occupy yourself preferir – to prefer presentar –to present resolver – to resolve concluir – to conclude armar – to arm incluir – to include activar –to activate animar – to animate/encourage progresar – to progress repetir – to repeat reunir – to meet vender – to sell honrar – to honour educar – to educate costar – to cost inundar – to inundate reservar – to reserve