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Mean Cardiac Axis
(Cardiac Vector)
IZADI, TAVAKOLLI, MORADI
Dr.H.R.Marateb
Department of Biomedical Engineering
Faculty of...
Table of Contents
Heart, Structure ,Function and Location of ESH
Cardiac axis
Estimating the cardiac (QRS) axis
Causes of ...
Heart
• It is a little larger than the size of your fist
• Heart is the most hard-working muscle.
• Components of the hear...
Structure ,Function and Location of ESH
• Sinoatrial (SA) node
• Internodal pathways
• Atrioventricular (AV) node
• Bundle...
Conduction System
©http://theodysseyonline.com/springfield/7-things-wish-knew-before-living-massachusetts/225376
Sinoatria...
Cardiac axis
Method
ECG
Ultra
sonography
X-Ray MRI
Age
Fetal Adult
©http://www.slideshare.net/NakhieeranNallasamy/ecg-2746...
ECG Axis Interpretation by Ultrasonography
(Echocardiography)
Estimating the cardiac (QRS) axis
Method 1 – The Quadrant Method
Method 2 – Leads I + II
Method 3 – The Isoelectric Lead
S...
Estimating the cardiac (QRS) axis
©http://www.bem.fi/book/15/15x/1509x.htm
aVf
I
ECG (The Standard 12 Lead ECG)
©http://cdn.lifeinthefastlane.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/RAD-due-to-RVH.jpg
Estimating the cardiac (QRS) axis
Height of Q wave: -0.5 mm
+ Height of R wave: +8.0 mm
+ Height of S wave: 0.0 mm
_______...
ECG Axis Interpretation
•Normal Axis = between -30 and +90 degrees.
•Extreme Axis Deviation = between -90 and 180 degrees
...
Causes of Axis Deviation
Right Axis Deviation
• Right ventricular hypertrophy
• Chronic lung disease, e.g. COPD
• Hyperkal...
Causes of Axis Deviation
Left Axis Deviation
• Left ventricular hypertrophy
• Left bundle branch block
• Inferior MI
• Wol...
Related Research
Related Research
Related Research
Suggestions
Dextrocardia Diagnosing By Cardiac Mean Axis in Fetal ECG's
References
Mean cardiac axis (cardiac vector)
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Mean cardiac axis (cardiac vector)

Mean cardiac axis (cardiac vector)

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Mean cardiac axis (cardiac vector)

  1. 1. Mean Cardiac Axis (Cardiac Vector) IZADI, TAVAKOLLI, MORADI Dr.H.R.Marateb Department of Biomedical Engineering Faculty of Engineering University of Isfahan
  2. 2. Table of Contents Heart, Structure ,Function and Location of ESH Cardiac axis Estimating the cardiac (QRS) axis Causes of Axis Deviation Diagnosing by Cardiac Axis Related Research Reference
  3. 3. Heart • It is a little larger than the size of your fist • Heart is the most hard-working muscle. • Components of the heart : ©http://my.clevelandclinic.org/ccf/media/Images/heart/coronaryarteriesnew.jpg
  4. 4. Structure ,Function and Location of ESH • Sinoatrial (SA) node • Internodal pathways • Atrioventricular (AV) node • Bundle of His • Left bundle branch • Right bundle branch • Purkinje system ©http://my.clevelandclinic.org/ccf/media/Images/heart/coronaryarteriesnew.jpg
  5. 5. Conduction System ©http://theodysseyonline.com/springfield/7-things-wish-knew-before-living-massachusetts/225376 Sinoatrial (SA) node Atrioventricular (AV) node
  6. 6. Cardiac axis Method ECG Ultra sonography X-Ray MRI Age Fetal Adult ©http://www.slideshare.net/NakhieeranNallasamy/ecg-27462381©http://radiopaedia.org/cases/dextrocardia-1
  7. 7. ECG Axis Interpretation by Ultrasonography (Echocardiography)
  8. 8. Estimating the cardiac (QRS) axis Method 1 – The Quadrant Method Method 2 – Leads I + II Method 3 – The Isoelectric Lead S. Meek and F. Morris,"Introduction to leads, rate, rhythm, and cardiac axis“ British Medical Journal, vol. 324, p. 415, 2002. http://en.ecgpedia.org/wiki/QRS_axis https://courses.kcumb.edu/physio/ecg%20primer/ecgaxis.htm
  9. 9. Estimating the cardiac (QRS) axis ©http://www.bem.fi/book/15/15x/1509x.htm aVf I
  10. 10. ECG (The Standard 12 Lead ECG) ©http://cdn.lifeinthefastlane.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/RAD-due-to-RVH.jpg
  11. 11. Estimating the cardiac (QRS) axis Height of Q wave: -0.5 mm + Height of R wave: +8.0 mm + Height of S wave: 0.0 mm ____________________________ + 7.5 mm ©http://cdn.lifeinthefastlane.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/RAD-due-to-RVH.jpg MEAN CARDIAC AXIS
  12. 12. ECG Axis Interpretation •Normal Axis = between -30 and +90 degrees. •Extreme Axis Deviation = between -90 and 180 degrees •Right Axis Deviation = greater than +90 degrees. •Left Axis Deviation = less than -30 degrees. •Borderline left axis deviation ©http://www.slideshare.net/NakhieeranNallasamy/ecg-27462381
  13. 13. Causes of Axis Deviation Right Axis Deviation • Right ventricular hypertrophy • Chronic lung disease, e.g. COPD • Hyperkalaemia: Renal insufficiency and K • Dextrocardia • Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome • Ventricular ectopy • Sodium-channel blockade, e.g. TCA poisoning • Acute right ventricular strain • Lateral STEMI • Secundum ASD – rSR’ pattern • Normal paediatric ECG • Left posterior fascicular block – diagnosis of exclusion • Vertically orientated heart – tall, thin patient
  14. 14. Causes of Axis Deviation Left Axis Deviation • Left ventricular hypertrophy • Left bundle branch block • Inferior MI • Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome • Ventricular pacing /ectopy • Primum ASD – rSR’ pattern • Left anterior fascicular block – diagnosis of exclusion • Horizontally orientated heart – short, squat patient Extreme Axis Deviation • Ventricular rhythms – e.g.VT, AIVR, ventricular ectopy • Hyperkalaemia • Severe right ventricular hypertrophy
  15. 15. Related Research
  16. 16. Related Research
  17. 17. Related Research
  18. 18. Suggestions Dextrocardia Diagnosing By Cardiac Mean Axis in Fetal ECG's
  19. 19. References

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