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Skeletal System of Human Body

Skeletal System of the human body and its diseases and conditions

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Skeletal System of Human Body

  1. 1. Joints
  2. 2. A joint or articulation (or articulate surface) is the location at which bones connect. They are constructed to allow movement (except for skull, sacral, sternal, and pelvic bones) and provide mechanical support .
  3. 3. Fibrous Joints Made of tough collagen fibers and include the sutures of the skull and the syndesmosis joint that holds the ulna and radius of the forearm together.
  4. 4. Cartilagenous Joints Made of a band of cartilage that binds bones together. Some examples of cartilaginous joints include joints between the ribs and costal cartilage, and the intervertebral disks of the spine
  5. 5. Gliding joints Found between the carpals of the wrist, are found where bones meet as flat surfaces and allow for the bones to glide past one another in any direction.
  6. 6. Hinge joints Found in elbow and knee, limit movement in only one direction so that the angle between bones can increase or decrease at the joint. The limited motion at hinge joints provides for more strength and reinforcement from the bones, muscles, and ligaments that make up the joint
  7. 7. Saddle joints Found between the first metacarpal and trapezium bone, permit 360 degree motion by allowing the bones to pivot along two axes
  8. 8. Ball and Socket joints These joints have the freest range of motion of any joint in the body – they are the only joints that can move in a full circle and rotate around their axis. However, the drawback to the ball and socket joint is that its free range of motion makes it more susceptible to dislocation than less mobile joints.
  9. 9. Bone Marrow
  10. 10. arYellow Type Mostly contains fat, and serves to provide sustenance and maintain the correct environment for the bone to function. It tends to be located in the center-most cavities of long bones, and is generally surrounded by a layer of red marrow. Red Type directly involved in cell production. As a body ages, the quantity of red marrow tends to shrink while the amount of yellow marrow increases, but it tends to have the strongest concentrations in flat bones such as the sternum or ilium.
  11. 11. Sesamoid and Wormian Bones
  12. 12. Sesamoid Bones Wormian Bones The Sesamoid bones are so named because they resemble a sesame seed. They are bones that are embedded within a tendon, and are typically found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint the hard, rigid form of connective tissue constituting most of the skeleton of vertebrates, composed chiefly of calcium salts
  13. 13. Axial Bones
  14. 14. The Skull
  15. 15. 1 x Ethmoid Bone 1 x Frontal Bone 1 x Occipital Bone 2 x Parietal Bones 1 x Sphenoid Bone 2 x Temporal Bones 8 Cranial Bones
  16. 16. 2 x Inferior Nasal Conchae 2 x Lacrimal Bones 1 x Mandible 2 x Maxillae (pl.); Maxilla (sing.) 2 x Nasal Bones 2 x Palatine Bones 1 x Vomer 2 x Zygomatic Bones 14 Facial Bones
  17. 17. Hyoid ( Visceral Arch )
  18. 18. Vertebral Column
  19. 19. 7 x cervical vertebrae in the neck. 12 x thoracic vertebrae in the upper back corresponding to each pair of ribs. 5 x lumbar vertebrae in the lower back. 5 x sacral vertebrae which are fused together to form 1 bone called the sacrum. 4 x coccygeal vertebrae that are fused together to form the coccyx or tailbone.
  20. 20. • The cervical vertebrae are C1 - C7 • The thoracic vertebrae are T1 –T12 • The lumbar vertebrae are L1 – L5 The cervical vertebrae are C1 - C7 The thoracic vertebrae are T1 –T12 The lumbar vertebrae are L1 – L5
  21. 21. Thoracic Basket
  22. 22. b
  23. 23. Vertebrosternal ( True Ribs ) Vertebrochondra ( False Ribs ) Vertrebal ( Floating Ribs )
  24. 24. Appendicular Bones
  25. 25. Upper Extremities Pectoral Girdle Forelimb
  26. 26. Clavicle The clavicle or collar bone holds the shoulder joint away from the rest of the upper body and is only as thick as your little finger.
  27. 27. Scapula The scapula is located on the back side of the ribcage and helps provide part of the shoulder joint and movement for the arms.
  28. 28. Forelimb
  29. 29. Humerus
  30. 30. LLLower Extremities Pelvis Hindlimb
  31. 31. Pectoral Girdle Clavicle Scapula
  32. 32. Forelimb Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals phalanges
  33. 33. Pelvis Os Coxae ( Innominate Bone )
  34. 34. Hindlimb Tibia Femur Fibula Patella Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges
  35. 35. Diseases and Conditions of the Skeletal System
  36. 36. Bursitis Inflammation of the Bursa (fluid filled sac surrounding the joint). A bursa can become inflamed from injury, infection (rare in the shoulder), or due to an underlying rheumatic condition. Bursitis is typically identified by localized pain or swelling, tenderness, and pain with motion of the tissues in the affected area.
  37. 37. Tendonitis Sometimes the tendons become inflamed for a variety of reasons, and the action of pulling the muscle becomes irritating. If the normal smooth gliding motion of your tendon is impaired, the tendon will become inflamed and movement will become painful. This is called tendonitis, and literally means inflammation of the tendon. The most common cause of tendonitis is overuse.
  38. 38. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Any condition that causes swelling or a change in position of the tissue within the carpal tunnel can squeeze and irritate the median nerve. Irritation of the median nerve in this manner causes tingling and numbness of the thumb, index, and the middle fingers, a condition known as "carpal tunnel syndrome
  39. 39. Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a term that means "porous bones." It is a skeletal disease affecting women and men. Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones have lost minerals especially calciumムmaking them weaker, more brittle, and susceptible to fractures (broken bones). Any bone in the body can be affected by osteoporosis, but the most common places where fractures occur are the back (spine), hips, and wrists.
  40. 40. Scoliosis Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine. If your child has scoliosis, the view from behind may reveal one or more abnormal curves.Scoliosis runs in families, but doctors often don't know the cause. More girls than boys have severe scoliosis. Adult scoliosis may be a worsening of a condition that began in childhood, but wasn't diagnosed or treated. In other cases, scoliosis may result from a degenerative joint condition in the spine.
  41. 41. Kyphosis With kyphosis, your spine may look normal or you may develop a hump. Kyphosis can occur as a result of developmental problems; degenerative diseases, such as arthritis of the spine; osteoporosis with compression fractures of the vertebrae; or trauma to the spine. It can affect children, adolescents and adults.
  42. 42. Lordosis A normal spine, when viewed from behind appears straight. However, a spine affected by lordosis shows evidence of a curvature of the back bones (vertebrae) in the lower back area, giving the child a "swayback" appearance
  43. 43. Tuberculosis of the Spine- Pott’s Disease As a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that impacts the spine, Pott’s disease has an effect that is sometimes described as being a sort of arthritis for the vertebrae that make up the spinal column. More properly known as tuberculosis spondylitis, Pott’s disease is named after Dr. Percivall Pott, an eighteenth century surgeon who was considered an authority in issues related to the back and spine.Pott's disease is often experienced as a local phenomenon that begins in the thoracic section of the spinal column. Early signs of the presence of Pott’s disease generally begin with back pain that may seem to be due to simple muscle strain. However, in short order, the symptoms will begin to multiply.
  44. 44. Rickets Rickets is the softening and weakening of bones in children, usually because of an extreme and prolonged vitamin D deficiency. Some skeletal deformities caused by rickets may need corrective surgery.
  45. 45. Leukemia
  46. 46. Leukemia is cancer of the blood cells. It starts in the bone marrow, the soft tissue inside most bones. Bone marrow is where blood cells are made.When you are healthy, your bone marrow makes:・White blood cells, which help your body fight infection.・Red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of your body.・Platelets, which help your blood clot.When you have leukemia, the bone marrow starts to make a lot of abnormal white blood cells, called leukemia cells. They don't do the work of normal white blood cells, they grow faster than normal cells, and they don't stop growing when they should
  47. 47. Myeloma Multiple myeloma is a cancer in which abnormal cells collect in the bone marrow and form tumors. Sometimes these abnormal cells (called myeloma cells) collect in only one bone and form a single tumor known as a plasmacytoma. However, in most cases, the myeloma cells collect in many bones, forming several tumors and causing other problems. When this happens, the disease is called multiple myeloma

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