Abstract: Building Performance Evaluation
This lecture outlines a comprehensive approach to Building Performance Evaluation applicable to all architectural and urban design projects. The Building Performance Evaluation process encompasses functional and technical performance of buildings alongside human performance criteria, while recognizing the cultural context of the project. Building Performance Evaluation (BPE) offers feedback on design and contributes to architectural knowledge.
ضمن سلسلة محاضراتها المهنية، نظمت جمعية المهندسين القطرية يوم الثلاثاء 1 مارس بمسرح الحي الثقافي محاضرة قدمها د. ياسر محجوب أستاذ العمارة بقسم العمارة والتخطيط العمراني بكلية الهندسة جامعة قطر محاضرة بعنوان "تقييم أداء المباني" تحت رعاية شركة تكنىتال. ويشمل تقييم أداء المباني تقييم كفاءة التصميم المعماري والأداء التقني للمباني بالإضافة إلى تقييم معايير الأداء الإنساني. وتوفر أبحاث تقييم أداء المباني معلومات مرتجعة عن التّصميم المعماري تساهم في الإضافة إلى المعرفة المعمارية، كما تقترح حلول للمشاكل القائمة بالإضافة إلى توجيه أسس ومعايير التصميم للحصول على مشروعات أفضل في المستقبل.
Building Performance Evaluation - تقييم أداء المباني
Qatar Society of Engineers March 1st , 2011 Lecture Building Performance EvaluationAn Integrative Framework For Architectural and Urban Design Projects Evaluation Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Department of Architecture College of Engineering Qatar University
Introduction This lecture outlines a comprehensive approach to Building Performance Evaluation Design Evaluation applicable to all architectural and urban design projects. Building Performance Evaluation (BPE) offers feedback on design and Construction contributes to architectural knowledge.
Introduction Building Performance Evaluation (BPE) is an extension of what had been called Evaluation Design “Post-Occupancy Evaluation." BPE is a continuous process of systematically evaluating the performance and/or effectiveness of aspects of buildings such as accessibility, aesthetics, cost- Construction effectiveness, functionality, produ ctivity, safety and security, and sustainability.
Six Phases of the Building Life Cycle The typical six phases of the building life cycle are: Recycling Planning 1- Planning, 2- Programming, 3- Design, Occupancy Program- ming 4- Construction, 5- Occupancy, and 6- Recycling. Construction Design
Participants in the Building Life Cycle Initiators: Owners - Investors - Institutions - Governmental Agencies… Designers: Architects - Interior Designers - Landscape Architects - Specialists (Structural - Electrical - mechanical - …) Builders: Contractors - Sub-contractors - … Operators: Managers - Maintenance staff End Users: actual persons occupying buildings
Linear Design Method Architectural Knowledge Briefing NeedBuilding Type Program Analysis Synthesis Evaluate Design Execution Site Data … … … … … ? … Linear Design Method
Cyclical Design Method Architectural Knowledge Briefing Need Building Type Building Program Performance Site Evaluation Data … Analysis Synthesis Evaluate Design Execution … … … … … Cyclical Design Method
BPE Across Project Life CycleFeed forwardExperience BPE Conceive Procure Occupy / manage Feed forward Experience Post Occupancy Evaluation Conceive Procure Occupy / manage
BPE Across Projects Life Cycle Feed forward 3-6 12-18 Experience mths mths 5 yrsConceive Procure Occupy Conceive Procure Plan Feed forward 3-6 12-18 BPE Experience mths mths 5 yrs Conceive Procure Occupy Plan Feed forward 3-6 12-18 POE Experience mths mths 5 yrs Conceive Procure Occupy Plan Feed forward BPE Experience Timeline for BPE
The Three Major Elements of EvaluationThe Building PerformanceEvaluation process Technicalencompasses Functionaland Technicalperformance of buildingsalongside Humanperformance criteria, while Behavioral Functionalrecognizing the CulturalContext of the project. Cultural Context The Three Major Elements of Evaluation
Elements of Evaluation Technical Elements:Fire safety, structural integrity, Technical sanitation, durability, acoustics, lighting, HVAC, ….. Functional Elements:Workflow, circulation, space allocation, operational Behavioral Functional efficiency, productivity, organization, ….. Cultural Context Behavioral Elements: The Three Major Elements of EvaluationPrivacy, security, social interaction, perception of density, territoriality, …..
Quantitative and QualitativeMeasurements of Performance Many aspects of building performance are in fact Quantifiable, such as: – Lighting, – Acoustics, – Temperature and humidity, – Durability of materials, – Amount and distribution of space, – User satisfaction and so on. The evaluation of Qualitative aspects of building performance, such as aesthetic beauty or visual compatibility with a building’s surroundings, is somewhat more difficult to measure.
Measurements of Performance Observed Performance – Measured by an expert or panel of experts. – Information is recorded with the help of a checklist during a walkthrough of the building. Perceived Performance – Measured by the users or occupants of a particular environment. – In most cases this information is recorded by a questionnaire. Measured Performance – Measured performance is captured through monitoring of physical phenomena.
Measurements of Performance Evaluation Measured Perceived Observed Technical Urban Fuctional Building Behavioral Room Performance Scale
An Integrative Framework for BPE Performance Criteria Market/ Needs Analysis Post- Occupancy Effectiveness Recycling Planning Review Evaluation Recycling Planning Occupancy Program- Occup- Program ming ancy -ming Post- Construction Design Program Construction Construct- Design Review Evaluation ion Design Review Performance Criteria An Integrative Framework for Building Performance Evaluation
Levels of BPE Effort There are three levels of effort at which BPEs can be undertaken: • Indicative • Investigative • Diagnostic
Levels of BPE Effort Indicative – Quick, walk-through evaluations – Selected interviews with knowledgeable informants – Structured interviews with key personnel – Group meetings with end-users – Positive and Negative aspects of building performance are documented using photography and/or notes – Can be carried out within a few hours of on-site data gathering – Executive summary results with prioritized issues and recommendations for action – Indicates major strengths and weaknesses of a particular building’s performance.
Levels of BPE Effort Investigative – More in-depth – Interviews and survey questionnaires – Photographic/video recordings – Physical measurements – Involve a number of buildings of the same type – Take anywhere from a week to several months
Levels of BPE Effort Diagnostic – Focused, longitudinal and cross-sectional evaluation studies – One or more performance aspects (e.g. stair safety, orientation, wayfinding, privacy, overcrowding, ...) – In-depth research in a very focused topic area – From months to years – Requires highly sophisticated data gathering and analysis techniques
The Process Preparation (2-3 weeks): Identification of user groups, timetabling, selection of participants, letters of invitation. Interviews (1 week): Small groups of like users are interviewed while walking through the building, which provides the prompt for their comments and observations. A review session is held to verify comments, establish priorities and review the process. Observation studies and written questionnaires may also be used. Analysis & Reporting (3-6 weeks): Documentation of participant findings, generation of recommendations, compilation of a report and presentation.
BPE Outcomes Short term outcomes – Feedback on existing problems in buildings – Identification of appropriate solutions Medium term outcomes – Inform the next building delivery cycle – Database development Long term outcomes – Generation of planning and design criteria for specific building types – Add to existing architectural knowledge
BPE Benefits Fine tuning new buildings. Improving design for future buildings. Assessing building quality Cost savings Renovating existing Improves staff and customer relations
The Application of BPE Institutions and Government Agencies Increasing concern for budget overruns, building failure, or inappropriate designdecisions made during the planning and development of facility. Government agenciesare interested in the performance evaluation concept and process in order to avoid thesedisadvantages. Private Sector and Facility Managers There is an increasing acceptance of the performance evaluation concept and processin the private sector in order to solicit user feedback on existing buildings. Design Firms While some design firms are fearful that BPE results may be used against them, andothers are unable to convince clients to pay for evaluation studies. Evaluation studiestoday constitutes an important contribution in the quest to provide quality assurance.
Who Should Conduct BPEs? Independent team of experts that includes architects, environmental psychologists, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, facility managers/experts and, when appropriate, fire protection personnel and structural engineers. The architectural and/or engineering firms during the pre-design phase The client hires an individual consultant or professional organization An academic group to develop architectural knowledge base on a set of social and psychological issues, evaluation methods, and/or building types. In-house facility experts
Barriers to BPEs There is generally no money for BPEs. BPEs require a considerable amount of time. No people with necessary BPE skills. Professionals do not like to have their work judged by other professionals. Difficulties involved in establishing a clear link among user assessments and the physical environment.
Conclusions The benefits of BPEs are several: – better quality of the built environment; – greater occupant comfort – more satisfactory experience in visiting, using, or working in a facility – improved staff morale and productivity – significant cost savings Most important of all, building performance evaluation contributes to the state-of-the-art knowledge of environmental design research and thus make significant contributions towards improving the profession of architecture.
Summary In summary, Building Performance Evaluation (BPE) identifies both successes and failures in building performance, with an emphasis on human factors and the interaction with the design of physical setting and building systems. If BPEs are made part of standard practice, it will help establish a performance-based approach to design.
Governmental Housing Projects, KuwaitThis research is applied on a sample of 27 house owners from different educationallevels and socio-cultural backgrounds.
The changes that have been done Exterior changes exterior walls changes exterior walls no changes exterior walls no changes 2525 exterior wall paint changes exterior wall paint no changes exterior wall paint no changes exterior finishing changes 20 20 exterior finishing no changes20 19 19 19 exterior finishing no changes exterior ornamentation changes exterior ornamentation no changes 15 exterior ornamentation no changes15 14 14 car shed changes 13 13 car shed no changes 12 car shed no changes exterior doors and fences changes10 exterior doors and fences no changes 8 8 8 exterior doors and fences no changes 7 7 garden changes garden no changes5 garden no changes adding extra rooms changes 2 adding extra rooms no changes adding extra rooms no changes0 adding extra floor changes adding extra floor no changes
The changes that have been done Interior Changes interior walls changes25 25 interior walls no changes 23 23 interior walls no changes 22 22 interior wall paint changes20 19 19 interior wall paint no changes interior wall paint no changes 17 16 interior finishing changes15 interior finishing no changes interior finishing no changes 11 interior flooring changes10 10 interior flooring no changes 8 8 interior flooring no changes bathrooms changes5 5 5 bathrooms no changes 4 4 bathrooms no changes 2 kitchen changes0 kitchen no changes kitchen no changes
Reasons behind changes 7% 7% functional form both The expence of changes 86% 22% 27% 1000-5000 KD 5000-10000 KD The materials that are changed 10000-20000 KD 7% 20000-30000 KD 22% 22% 30000-40000 KD 7% throne away sold 52%41% reused
Marina Mall - Kuwait The evaluation of user satisfaction intended to depict the objectives and aims of the designers and compare them with opinions of its users, employees and visitors. It focused on: – Way finding and circulation – Air temperature – Noise levels – Some users attitudes – Security
Marina Mall - Kuwait Ground floor plan First floor planMarina mall location
Marina Mall - Kuwait Way-finding and Circulation: Most users cannot find their way in and out the mall and betweenstores. They get lost easily. It is hard for users to understand thevertical circulation between the parking level and the shopping level.There by, most users make themselves familiar with only oneentrance to access the mall, which for most of them is the entrance onthe Gulf Road. Air temperature: The employees are not showing any satisfaction with the indoorcold temperature. The employees who usually have slightmovements, suffer from the cold temperature.
Marina Mall - Kuwait Noise: The area under the dome is very noisy due to the design of the largedouble height space under the dome, which causes echoes to travelthroughout the building. In addition to the large flow of crowd on theground floor, the noise coming from the food court on the upper leveland the level of music coming from each restaurant and storessurrounding the dome. Security: Security staff members are not enough nor qualified for their jobs.People complain from the fights that regularly occur inside the mallon weekends when there is a large crowd.
Marina Mall - Kuwait Noise and Lighting level measurement: THE DECIBEL METER lighting lev el 900 800 700 600 500 LUX 400 Daytime (lux) 300 Daytime (lux 200 Night (lux) Night (lux) 100 0a Area Area Area Area Area Area Area 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 area
Marina Mall - Kuwait 5 4 3 2 1 Daytime (lux) Night (lux) Area 1 250 64 Area 2 860 210 6 Area 3 670 118 7 Area 4 570 43 Area 5 400 302 Area 6 790 405 Area 7 690 96
Marina Mall - Kuwait Finding Parking SpaceAge Difficulty to find parking space Age 13-19 20 30 20-29 20 30-39 10 40-49 10 50-59 0 0 60 + 1 Purpose of v isiteLevel of educationLevel of education Purpose of visit? shopping 60 20 resturants 15 middle school 40 cinema 10 high school playing university and college 20 5 walking around higher education 0 0 meeting 1 1 other
Marina Mall - Kuwait Rate Marina Mall according to: 25 20 15 10 5 0 op t l v n c f i e e m s f en emp ightin enti o ise rowd loori nteri xte r xte r ain ecu ire e es er t la t ed ng or i i t r xit poor s ur e g ion ne e n or lo or co ana n ity vir o lor ce average ss on k good me excellent nt
de ti tu at s er us ng di fin ay w it y al qu it s ex e fir y rit cu se c e an an nt ai m rsMarina Mall - Kuwait lo co ok r lo r io t te en ex nm i ro nv re rio te in g in or flo n io il at nt ve Rate Marina Mall according to? g in ht lig es en op 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
Marina Mall - Kuwait Salem al-Mubark court Virgin corridor The one store (exterior) Marina corridors Wide corridor Marina’s signage
Marina Mall - KuwaitAs a result of this BOE, solutions on the short term included the following: Opening clearer entrances of “The One” store The dome onto the mall. Increasing signage of shaft numbers and maps in the parking lot and throughout the building. Relocate the existing visitors building maps. The dome
Marina Mall - KuwaitRecommendations for other future shopping centers and malls: Study flow patterns of visitors and design Food court stores accordingly Provide directories and reference labeling for entrances and zones Locate entrances of the building in nodes containing equal amount of people so that the entrances would be used equally. The parking