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History of microprocessors copy

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History of microprocessors copy

  1. 1. Lecture 2 1
  2. 2. Generation of Microprocessors  We divide the years of development of microprocessors as 5 generations  From 1970 to date 2
  3. 3. First generation (1971 – 73)  Intel Corporation introduced 4004, the first microprocessor in 1971.  During the same period:  Rockwell International’s PPS-4 (4 bits)  Intel’s 8008 (8 bits)  National Semiconductor’s IMP-16 (16 bits)  They were fabricated using PMOS technology which provided low cost, slow speed and low output currents  They were not compatible with TTL 3
  4. 4. Second Generation (1974 – 1978)  Marked the beginning of very efficient 8 – bit microprocessors.  Some of the popular processors were:  Motorola’s 6800 and 6809  Intel’s 8085  Zilog’s Z80  They were manufactured using NMOS technology.  This technology offered faster speed and higher density than PMOS  TTL compatible 4
  5. 5. Third generation microprocessors (1979 – 80)  This age dominated by 16 – bits microprocessors  Some of them were:  Intel’s 8086/80186/80286  Motorolla’s 68000/68010  They were designed using HMOS technology  HMOS provides some advantages over NMOS as  Speed-power-product of HMOS is four times better than that of NMOS  HMOS can accommodate twice the circuit density compared to NMOS  Intel used HMOS technology to recreate 8085A and named it as 8085AH with a higher price tag. 5
  6. 6. Fourth Generation (1981 – 1995)  This era marked the beginning of 32 bits microprocessors  Intel introduced 432, which was bit problematic  a clean Intel 80386 is launched.  Motorola introduced 68020/68030.  They were fabricated using low-power version of the HMOS technology called HCMOS.  Motorola introduced 32-bit RISC processors called MC88100 6
  7. 7. Fifth Generation (1995 – till date)  This age the emphasis is on introducing chips that carry on-chip functionalities and improvements in the speed of memory and I/O devices along with introduction of 64-bit microprocessors.  Intel leads the show here with Pentium, Celeron and very recently dual and quad core processors working with up to 3.5GHz speed. 7
  8. 8. Evolution of Intel Microprocessors 4-bit 8-bit 16-bit 32-bit 64-bit 4004 8008 8086 80386 Dual Core 4040 8080 8088 80486 Core 2 8085 80186 Pentium/80586 Core i7 80188 PII Core i5 80286 PIII Core i3 PIV Dual Core 8
  9. 9. INTEL 4004  the first microprocessor by Intel.  Its clock speed was 740KHz.  It had 2,300 transistors.  It could execute around 60,000 instructions per second.  Bus width: 4 bits  4 KB program memory  640 bytes data memory  No interrupts  16-pin DIP (Dual Inline Package) 9
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  11. 11. INTEL 8080  Introduced in 1974.  8-bit microprocessor.  clock speed 2 MHz.  It had 6,000 transistors.  10 times faster than 8008.  execute 5,00,000 instructions per second. 11
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  13. 13. INTEL 8085  Introduced in 1976.  8-bit μP.  Its clock speed 3 MHz.  Its data bus is 8-bit and address bus is 16-bit.  It had 6,500 transistors.  Could execute 7,69,230 instructions per second.  It could access 64 KB of memory.  It had 246 instructions.  Over 100 million copies were sold. 13
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  15. 15. INTEL 8086  Introduced in 1978.  It was first 16-bit μP.  Its clock speed is 4.77 MHz, 8 MHz and 10 MHz, depending on the version.  Its data bus is 16-bit and address bus is 20-bit.  It had 29,000 transistors.  Could execute 2.5 million instructions per second.  It can access 1 MB of memory.  It has 22,000 instructions.  It had Multiply and Divide instructions. 15
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  17. 17. INTEL 8088  Introduced in 1979.  It was also 16-bit μP.  It was created as a cheaper version of Intel’s 8086.  It was a 16-bit processor with an 8-bit external bus.  Could execute 2.5 million instructions per second.  This chip became the most popular in the computer industry when IBM used it for its first PC.  8088 and 8086 functionally identical but 8088 lower performance, 17
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  19. 19. INTEL 80386  Introduced in 1986.  first 32-bit μP.  Its data bus is 32-bit and address bus is 32-bit.  It could address 4 GB of memory.  It had 2,75,000 transistors.  Its clock speed varied from 16 MHz to 33 MHz depending upon the various versions.  Different versions:  80386 DX  80386 SX  80386 SL  Intel 80386 became the best selling microprocessor in history.  83086 has various operation mode, which allow it to act as 80286 chip or multiple 8086 chip, as well as a set of instruction capable of 32 bit operations such as arithmetic. 19
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  21. 21. INTEL PENTIUM IV  Introduced in 2000.  32-bit μP.  Its clock speed was from 1.3 GHz to 3.8 GHz.  L1 cache was of 32 KB & L2 cache of 256 KB.  It had 42 million transistors.  All internal connections were made from aluminum to copper. 21
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  23. 23. INTEL DUAL CORE  Introduced in 2006.  It is 32-bit or 64-bit μP.  It has two cores.  Both the cores have their own internal bus and L1 cache, but share the external bus and L2 cache  It supported SMT technology.  SMT: Simultaneously Multi-Threading  E.g.: Adobe Photoshop supported SMT 23
  24. 24. INTEL CORE 2  Introduced in 2006.  It is a 64-bit μP.  Its clock speed is from 1.2 GHz to 3 GHz.  It has 291 million transistors.  It has 64 KB of L1 cache per core and 4 MB of L2 cache.  It is launched in three different versions:  Intel Core 2 Duo  Intel Core 2 Quad  Intel Core 2 Extreme 24
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  26. 26. INTEL CORE i3  Introduced in 2010.  It is a 64-bit μP.  It has 2 physical cores.  Its clock speed is from 2.93 GHz to 3.33 GHz.  It has 781 million transistors.  It has 64 KB of L1 cache per core, 512 KB of L2 cache and 4 MB of L3cache 26
  27. 27. Other processors  Mobile Pentium processors  Atom processors 27

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