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Type of high rise building


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prepared by:Zabihullah Nasiri

Published in: Engineering
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Type of high rise building

  1. 1. Type of high-rise Building Presented By: Nik Mohammad B126015 Osama Abdul hafeez B126019 Zabihullah B126034
  2. 2. Introduction & Definition Emporis Standards defines: A multi-story structure between 35–100 meters tall, or a building of unknown height from 12–39 floors. Or A high-rise is a tall building or structure: Buildings between 75 feet and 491 feet (23 m to 150 m) high are considered high-rises. Buildings taller than 492 feet (150 m) are classified as skyscrapers. Or The international conference on fire safety: Any structure where the height can have a serious impact on evacuation.
  3. 3. Demand for high-rise Building 1. Scarcity of land in urban areas 2. Increasing the demand for business and residential space 3. Economic growth 4. Technological advancements 5. Innovations in structural systems 6. Desire for aesthetics in urban settings 7. Concept of city skyline 8. Cultural significance and prestige 9. Human aspiration to building higher
  4. 4. Structural Loads • Gravity loads – Dead loads – Live loads – Snow loads • Lateral loads – Wind loads – Seismic loads • Special load cases – Impact loads – Blast loads
  5. 5. Construction materials Advantages are:  Plasticity  Easily availability  Easy in casting  Non corrosive  Can be cast in situ Disadvantages are:  Cost of form  Dead weight  Difficulty in pouring CONCRETE:- cellular concrete of clay-gypsum & invention of light weight concrete. FERRO CONCRETE:-it is layer of fine mesh saturated with cement. GUNITE:- it is also known as shot Crete. compressed air to shoot concrete onto (or into) a frame or structure. Shot Crete is frequently used against vertical soil or rock surfaces, as it eliminates the need for formwork. GLASS:- float glass with double glass is used in tall buildings . Tempered glass is used in tall buildings instead of plain glass, as that would shatter at such height. Materials used for high rise buildings: concrete, steel, glass, cladding material, high alumina cement used for roofs & floors. It contains bauxite instead of clay, cement, Portland cement of lime stone, silica.
  6. 6. List of Top 10 High-Rise Buildings # Building City Floors Height Year 1 Burj Khalifa Dubai 163 828 m 2010 2 Makkah Clock Royal Tower [Abraj Al Bait] Makkah 95 601 m 2012 3 Taipei 101 Taipei 101 509 m 2004 4 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai 101 492 m 2008 5 International Commerce Centre [Union Square] Hong Kong 118 484 m 2010 6 Petronas Tower 1 [Petronas Towers] KualaLumpur 88 452 m 1998 7 Petronas Tower 2 [Petronas Towers] KualaLumpur 88 452 m 1998 8 Nanjing Greenland Financial Center Nanjing 66 450 m 2010 9 Willis Tower Chicago 108 442 m 1974 10 Kingkey Finance Tower Shenzhen 100 442 m 2011
  7. 7. Completed High Rise-Buildings in Pakistan Sr # Name City Height Floors Year 1 Ocean Towers (formerly Sofitel) Karachi 120 m 394 ft 30 2012 2 MCB Tower Karachi 116 m 381 ft 29 2005 3 Telecom Tower Islamabad 113 m 371 ft 24 2011 4 The Centaurus Tower 1 Islamabad 114m 375 ft 32 2012 5 The Centaurus Tower 2 Islamabad 110m 361 ft 32 2012 6 The Centaurus Tower 3 Islamabad 110m 361 ft 32 2012 7 Arfa Software Technology Park Lahore 106 m 348 ft 19 2011 8 Dolmen City Karachi 102 m 335 ft 21 2011 10 Habib Bank Plaza Karachi 101 m 331 ft 22 1963 11 Chapal Plaza Karachi 101 m 331 ft 22 1985
  8. 8. Type of High-Rise Structure 1. Braced Frame 2. Rigid Frame Structure 3. Infilled Frame Structure 4. High efficiency Mega-Braced frame system 5. Flat Plate and Flat Slab Structure 6. Shear wall structure 7. Core Structure system 8. Framed tube structure 9. The trussed tube 10. Bundled tube structure 11. Outriggers system 12. Tube in tube
  9. 9. Advantages:- •Girders only participate minimally in the lateral bracing action-Floor framing design is independent of its level in the structure. •Can be repetitive up the height of the building with obvious economy in design and fabrication. Disadvantages:- Obstruct the internal planning and the locations of the windows and doors; for this reason, braced bent are usually incorporated internally along wall and partition lines, especially around elevator, stair, and service shaft.-Diagonal connections are expensive to fabricate and erect.
  10. 10. Rigid Frame Structure The word rigid means ability to resist the deformation. Rigid frame structures can be defined as the structures in which beams & columns are made monolithically and act collectively to resist the moments which are generating due to applied load.
  11. 11. Infilled Frame Structure Most usual form of construction for tall buildings up to 30 stories in height Column and girder framing of reinforced concrete, or sometimes steel, is in-filled by panels of brickwork, block work, or cast-in-place concrete. Because of the in-filled serve also as external walls or internal partitions, the system is an economical way of stiffening and strengthening the structure. The complex interactive behavior of the infill in the frame, and the rather random quality of masonry, has made it difficult to predict with accuracy the stiffness and strength of an in-filled frame.
  12. 12. Flat plate: The flat plate is a two-way reinforced concrete framing system utilizing a slab of uniform thickness, the simplest of structural shapes. Flat slab: The flat slab is a two-way reinforced structural system that includes either drop panels or column capitals at columns to resist heavier loads and thus permit longer spans. Flat-Plate and Flat Slab Structure
  13. 13. • A type of rigid frame construction. • The shear wall is in steel or concrete to provide greater lateral rigidity. It is a wall where the entire material of the wall is employed in the resistance of both horizontal and vertical loads. • Is composed of braced panels (or shear panels) to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure. Wind & earthquake loads are the most common among the loads. • For skyscrapers, as the size of the structure increases, so does the size of the supporting wall. Shear walls tend to be used only in conjunction with other support systems. Shear wall system
  14. 14. FRAMED-TUBE STRUCTURES] The lateral resistant of the framed-tube structures is provided by very stiff moment-resistant frames that form a “tube” around the perimeter of the building. The basic inefficiency of the frame system for reinforced concrete buildings of more than 15 stories resulted in member proportions of prohibitive size and structural material cost premium, and thus such system were economically not viable. The frames consist of 6-12 ft (2-4m) between centers, joined by deep spandrel girders. Gravity loading is shared between the tube and interior column or walls. When lateral loading acts, the perimeter frame aligned in the direction of loading acts as the “webs” of the massive tube of the cantilever, and those normal to the direction of the loading act as the “flanges”. The tube form was developed originally for building of rectangular plan, and probably it’s most efficient use in that shape. Dewitt chestnut
  15. 15. THE TRUSSED TUBE The trussed tube system represents a classic solution for a tube uniquely suited to the qualities and character of structural steel. Interconnect all exterior columns to form a rigid box, which can resist lateral shears by axial in its members rather than through flexure. Introducing a minimum number of diagonals on each façade and making the diagonal intersect at the same point at the corner column. The system is tubular in that the fascia diagonals not only form a truss in the plane, but also interact with the trusses on the perpendicular faces to affect the tubular behavior. This creates the x form between corner columns on each façade. Relatively broad column spacing can resulted large clear spaces for windows, a particular characteristic of steel buildings. The façade diagonalization serves to equalize the gravity loads of the exterior columns that give a significant impact on the exterior architecture. John Hancock Center introduced trussed tube design. Recently the use of perimeter diagonals – thus the term “DIAGRID” - for structural effectiveness and lattice-like aesthetics has generated renewed interest in architectural and structural designers of tall buildings. Introducing a minimum number of diagonals on each façade and making the diagonal intersect at the same point at the corner column
  16. 16. The concept allows for wider column spacing in the tubular walls than would be possible with only the exterior frame tube form. The spacing which make it possible to place interior frame lines without seriously compromising interior space planning. The ability to modulate the cells vertically can create a powerful vocabulary for a variety of dynamic shapes therefore offers great latitude in architectural planning of at all building. Burj Khalifa, Dubai. Sears Tower, Chicago. BUNDLED TUBE SYSTEM
  17. 17. TUBE-IN-TUBE SYSTEM This variation of the framed tube consists of an outer frame tube, the “Hull,” together with an internal elevator and service core. The Hull and core act jointly in resisting both gravity and lateral loading. The outer framed tube and the inner core interact horizontally as the shear and flexural components of a wall- frame structure, with the benefit of increased lateral stiffness. The structural tube usually adopts a highly dominant role because of its much greater structural depth. Lumbago Tatung Haji Building, Kuala Lumpur
  18. 18. Burj khalifa Makkah Clock Royal Tower
  19. 19. Taipei 101
  20. 20. Petronas TowersInternational Commerce Centre
  21. 21. Kingkey Finance TowerWills Tower
  22. 22. Thank you