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Al-Khwarizmi: The Fatherof Algebra
Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, (780 –
850 CE), was the grandfather of compu...
Contributions:
The modern word algorithm is derived from the name, al-Khwarizmi, the
best mathematician of his age, thanks...
The next part of al-Khwarizmi’s Algebra
consists of applications and worked
examples. He then goes on to look at rules
for...
Europe. Abu Kamil Shuja, an Islamic mathematician, whose work on
mathematics was based on Khwarizmi’s works kept the influ...
- wikipedia.org
- Pioneers ofIslamic History by Dr.Ibrahim B. Syed.
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Research khawrezmi

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Research khawrezmi

  1. 1. Al-Khwarizmi: The Fatherof Algebra Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, (780 – 850 CE), was the grandfather of computer science and the father of Algebra. He was the populariser of Arabic numerals, adopterof zero (the symbol) and the decimal system, astronomer, cartographer, in brief an encyclopaedic scholar. Life: He was born in a Persian[1][5] family, and his birthplace is given as Chorasmia[9] by Ibn al-Nadim. Few details of al-Khwarizmi's life are known with certainty. His name may indicate that he came from Khwarezm (Khiva), then in Greater Khorasan, which occupied the eastern part of the Greater Iran, now Xorazm Province in Uzbekistan. Bayt Al-Hikmah (House of Wisdom): Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa al- Khwarizmi lived in Baghdad in the early ninth century. Baghdad at that time was a cultural crossroads, and, under the patronage of the Abbassid caliphs, the so-called House of Wisdom at Baghdad produced a Golden Age of Arabic science and mathematics. In Baghdad, scholars encountered and built upon the ideas of ancient Greek and Indian mathematicians. (Illustration source: http://www.silk-road.com/maps/images/Arabmap.jpg)
  2. 2. Contributions: The modern word algorithm is derived from the name, al-Khwarizmi, the best mathematician of his age, thanks to his book, “al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala”, (a bookshowing how to solve equations and problems derived from ordinary life) which means “The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing”, which later evolved into algebra, was the first written text on the subject. In al-Khwarizmi’s time, algebra was a practical system for solving all kinds of problems “in cases of inheritance, contracts, surveying, tax collection, legacies, partition, lawsuits, and trade, and in all their dealings with one another, or where the measuring of lands, the digging of canals, geometrical computations, and other objects of various sorts and kinds are concerned.” Al-jabr was about removing the negative terms from an equation, while al-muqabalameant “balancing” the values of an equation across an equal sign. It is the title of this text that gives us the word “algebra”. It is the first bookto be written on algebra. In al-Khwarizmi’s own words, the purpose of the bookwas to teach what was easiest and most useful in arithmetic, such as what was constantly required in cases of inheritance, legacies, partition, lawsuits, and trade, and in all their dealings with one another, or where the measuring of lands, the digging of canals, geometrical computations, and other objects of various sorts and kinds were concerned. This does not sound like the contents of an algebra text, and indeed only the first part of the bookis a discussionof what we would today recognize as algebra. However it is important to realize that the bookwas intended to be highly practical, and that algebra was introduced to solve real life problems that were part of everyday life in the Islamic empire at that time. After introducing the natural numbers, al Khwarizmi discusses the solution of equations. Al Khwarizmi's equations are linear or quadratic and are composed ofunits (numbers), roots (x) and squares (x2). He first reduces an equation to one of 6 standard forms, using the operations of addition and subtraction, and then shows how to solve these standard types of equations. He uses bothalgebraic methods of solution and the geometric method of completing the square.
  3. 3. The next part of al-Khwarizmi’s Algebra consists of applications and worked examples. He then goes on to look at rules for finding the area of figures such as the circle, and also finding the volume of solids such as the sphere, cone, and pyramid. The text bookof Algebra was intended to be highly practical and it was introduced to solve real life problems that were part of everyday life in the Islamic world at that time. Al-Khwarizmi also wrote a treatise on Hindu-Arabic numerals. The Arabic text is lost but a Latin translation, “Algoritmi de numero Indorum” in English “Al-Khwarizmi on the Hindu Art of Reckoning” gave rise to the word algorithm deriving from his name in the title as mentioned earlier. Unfortunately the Latin translation (translated into English) is known to be much changed from al-Khwarizmi’s original text (of which even the title is unknown). The work describes the Hindu place-value system of numerals based on 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 0. The first use of zero as a place holder in positional base notation was probably due to al- Khwarizmi in this work. Methods for arithmetical calculation are given, and a method to find square roots is known to have been in the Arabic original although it is missing from the Latin version.“… The decimal place-value system was a fairly recent arrival from India and … al- Khwarizmi’s work was the first to expound it systematically. Thus, although elementary, it was of seminal importance.” Khwarizmi developed detailed trigonometric tables containing the sine functions which later included tangent functions. Khwarizmi’s bookon arithmetic was translated into Latin and published in Rome in 1857 by Prince Baldassare Boncompagni and appears as part 1 of a volume entitled “Tratti d’ aritmetica”. The bookis titled as Algorithmi de numero indorum which means “Khwarizmi concerning the Hindu art of reckoning.” Many of his books were translated into Latin and used as a principle mathematical text bookin European universities until the 16th. century. Among them these two books had important place: “Kitab al- Jama wal-Tafreeq bil Hisab al-Hindi”and “Kitab al-Jabrwa al- muqabala.” Khwarizmi’s contribution and influence are tremendous. Two important books on arithmetic, Carmen de Algorismo and Algorismus vulgaris which were written in 12th. and 13th. century respectively owe a lot to the Khwarizmi’s bookand were used for several hundred years in Methods for arithmetical calculationare given, and a method to find square roots is known to have been in the Arabic original although it is missing from the Latin version.
  4. 4. Europe. Abu Kamil Shuja, an Islamic mathematician, whose work on mathematics was based on Khwarizmi’s works kept the influence of Khwarizmi on Leonardo of Pisa, a 13th. century scholar and up to Middle Ages and during the Renaissance Al Khwarizmi’s Impact on Europe In 1140 Robert of Chester (who read mathematics in Spain) translated Khwarizmi’s bookinto Latin as Liber algebraeet almucabala,then ultimately gave its name to the discipline of algebra. The Spanish Jew, John of Seville, produced another Latin version. When Khwarizmi’s work became known in Europe through Latin translations, his influence made an indelible mark on the development of science in the West. His Algebra bookintroduced that discipline to Europe “unknown till then” and became the standard mathematical text at European universities until the 16th. century. In the 16th. century it is found in English as algiebarand almachabel and in various other forms but was finally shortened to algebra. Al Khwarizmi is one of the Muslim scholars who laid the foundations for Europe’s Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution. Several of Al-Khwarizmi’s books were translated into Latin in the early 12th. century by Adelard of Bath and Gerard of Cremona. The treatises on Arithmetic, Kitab al-Jam’a wal-Tafreeq bil Hisab al-Hindi, and the one on Algebra, Al-Maqala fi Hisab-alJabr wa-al-Muqabilah,are known only from Latin translations. Introduction of Arabic numerals provided a pivotal advance over the cumbersome Roman numerals. This development of a more convenient number system assisted progress in science, accounting and bookkeeping. Key to this was the use of the number zero, a conceptunknown to the West. The use of this number system (Arabic numerals) spread throughout the Muslim world over the next two centuries, assisting the development of science. The Arabic numeral system was first mentioned in Europe around 1200 CE, but Christian adherence to the Roman system hindered its use and introduction. It was only fully accepted in Europe after it was adopted by the Italian traders in the Renaissance of the 16th century, who followed the practice of their Arab trading partners. Sources:
  5. 5. - wikipedia.org - Pioneers ofIslamic History by Dr.Ibrahim B. Syed.

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